Last Updated: January 27, 2017
Courses in Glance
$ Cross-listed with Entomology
Pl Path 111. Plant Pathogens and Principles of Plant Pathology 4 (3+1)
Introduction, Important plant pathogenic organisms, fungi, bacteria, fastidious vesicular bacteria, phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, viruses, viroids, algae, protozoa and phanerogamic parasites with examples of diseases caused by them. Prokaryotes: classification of prokaryotes according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. General Characters of fungi, Definition of fungus, somatic structures, reproduction in fungi (asexual and sexual). Nomenclature, system of and classification of fungi. Definition, objectives and History of Plant Pathology. Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology. Survival and Dispersal of Plant Pathogens. Phenomenon of infection - pre-penetration, penetration and post penetration. Pathogenesis - Role of enzymes, toxins, growth regulators and polysaccharides. Defense mechanisms in plants – Structural and biochemical (pre and post infection). Plant disease epidemiology. Plant disease forecasting - Remote sensing – Avoidance, exclusion, protection – Plant Quarantine and Inspection – Quarantine rules and regulations. Cultural methods - Rouging, eradication of alternate and collateral hosts, crop rotation, manure and fertilizer management, mixed cropping, sanitation, hot weather ploughing, soil amendments, time of sowing, seed rate and plant density, irrigation and drainage. Role and mechanisms of biological control and PGPR. Physical Methods - Heat and Chemical methods
Methods of application of fungicides. Host plant resistance - Application of biotechnology in plant disease management - Development of disease resistance transgenic plants. Integrated plant disease management (IDM) - Concept, advantages and importance
Practical : Acquaintance to plant pathology laboratory and equipments; Preparation of culture media for fungi and bacteria; Isolation techniques, preservation of disease samples; Study of Pythium, Phytophthora, Albugo; Sclerospora, Peronosclerospora, Pseudoperonospora, Peronospora, Plasmopara and Bremia; Mucor, Rhizopus, Oidium, Oidiopsis, Ovulariopsis, Erysiphe, Phyllactinia, Uncinula, Podosphaera, Puccinia (different stages). Uromyces, Meampsora and Sphacelotheca, Ustilago and Tolyposporium; Septoria, Colletotrichum, Pestalqtiopsis and Pyricularia; Fusarium; Drechslera, Alternaria, Stemphyllium, Cercospora, Phaeoisariopsis, Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium; Demonstration of Koch’s postulates; Study of different groups of fungicides and antibiotics; Preparation of fungicides - Bordeaux mixture, Bordeaux paste, Chestnut compound; Methods of application of fungicides - seed and foliar; Bio-assay of fungicides - poisoned food technique, inhibition zone technique and slide germination technique; Bio-control of plant pathogens – dual culture technique, seed treatment. Visit to quarantine station and remote sensing laboratory.
Pl Path 233. Diseases of Field Crops and Their Management 3 (2+1)
Economic importance, symptoms, cause, epidemiology and disease cycle and integrated management of diseases of rice, sorghum, bajra, maize, wheat, sugarcane, turmeric , tobacco, groundnut, sesamum, sunflower, cotton, redgram, bengalgram, blackgram, greengram , soybean.
Practical: Study of symptoms, etiology, host-parasite relationship and specific control measures of the following crop diseases. Presentation of disease samples survey and collection of diseases of rice, sorghum; wheat, bajara, maize; sugarcane, turmeric, tobacco; f groundnut, castor, sunflower, sesamum, cotton, fredgram, greengram, blackgram, bengalgram; Field visits at appropriate time during the semester .
Note: Students should submit 50 pressed, well mounted diseased specimens in three installments during the semester.
Pl. Path. 241 Crop Protection - I (Plant Pathology) 1 (0+1)
Plant diseases, classification and cause of disease. Symptoms and diagnosis of plant disease. Disease management with chemicals and cultural practices. Symptoms and management of major diseases i.e. Rust and smut of Wheat, Rice blast, Stalk rot of Maize, Red rot of Sugarcane, Late blight of Potato, Rhizome rot of Ginger.
Pl Path 364. Diseases of Horticultural Crops and Their Management 3(2+1)
Economic Importance, symptoms, cause, disease cycle and integrated management of diseases of citrus, mango, banana, grapevine, pomegranate, papaya, guava, pea, apple, chilli, brinjal , bhendi, potato, crucifers, cucurbits, tomato, beans, onion, coconut, oil palm, betelvine, mulberry, coffee, tea, rose, chrysanthemum, lilies carnation & gladiolus.
Practical : Diseases of beans, citrus, guava, papaya , banana, pomegranate, ber; mango, grapes, apple; chilli, brinjal, pea, bhendi, potato, tomato, crucifers; cucurbits, onion mulberry; rose, chrysanthemum and jasmine. Field visits at appropriate time during the semester.
Note:- Students should submit 50 pressed, well mounted diseased specimens in three installments during the semester.
Pl. Path. 475 IPM and IDM 4 (2+2)
Introduction, concepts and importance of IPM and IDM, Concepts of EIL and ETL; Components of IPM and IDM with emphasis on biorational arid biotechnological approaches; Sampling and monitoring; Pest and disease surveillance and forecasting; Pests and diseases of National and International importance; IPM/IDM in important crops of the hilly region; Constraints in implementation of IPM/IDM in India.
Familiarization with components of IPM and IDM; Working out EIL and ETLs of important crop pests and diseases; Disease monitoring, Pest monitoring with various traps; Sampling of important crop pests and diseases, determination of diversity indices; Collection and identification of damaging stages of important crop pests; Identification of characteristic damage symptoms of important insect-pests and diseases; Demonstration of IPM/IDM modules in important field and protected crops.
Ento 474 Management of Post-Harvest Insect-Pests and Diseases 3 (1+2)
Importance and significance of post-harvest insect-pests and diseases; Biotic (insect-pests, mites and microorganisms) and abiotic (temperature, relative humidity etc.) factors associated with post- harvest losses; Biology and nature of damage of important insect-pests of stored grains, dry fruits, spices, fruits, vegetables, etc.; Principles of grain storage; Preventive and curative methods for managing post-harvest insect-pests and diseases.
Identification of important species of insect-pests and microorganisms associated with stored foodgrains, fruits, vegetables, spices, etc.; Study of biology and nature of damage of some important stored pests and pathogens; Determination of grain moisture; Detection and identification of infestation and infection; Study of different storage structures; Methods of fumigation, sanitation and safe storage; Various pre and post storage treatments of produce.
Ento 475 Non-Insect-pests and their Management 3 (1+2)
Introduction and importance of rodents in the economy of Indian agriculture; Losses caused by rodents; Distribution and population cycles of important rodent species; Management of rodents in field and storage; Life cycle, host range, nature of damage and management of most important snails and slugs, phytophagous nematodes and mites in agriculture; Important birds and wild animal pests damaging crops.
Identification of important species of rodents, feeding habits and burrow pattern of important species of rodents; Pre-baiting, baiting and fumigation of burrows; Management of rodents in field and storage; Study of important species of snails and slugs; External morphology and damage symptoms of phytophagous mites, nematodes; Sampling techniques for nematode extraction. Tactics for management of important bird species and wild animals.
Ento 476 Apiculture 2 (0+2)
Study of important species of honeybees; Types of beehives; Equipments and tools for handling of bees; Selection of site for establishment of bee colony; Inspection of bee colony; maintenance of apiary records; Morphometric studies of honeybee species; Seasonal management of honeybees; Uniting, division, preparation of bee colonies for migration; Rearing of new queens, queen introduction and replacement; Collection, identification and preservation of local bee flora; Methods of honey extraction, Honey, its properties, and its quality analysis; Methods of collection of royal jelly, bee venom etc.; Field observations on bee behaviour in pollination; Important diseases of honeybees and their control measures; Important parasitic mites associated with honeybees and their identification; Study of wax moths and wasp enemies; Pesticides and their effects on honeybees; Visit to Beekeeping Research Station and honey processing units.
Pl. Path. 476 Mushroom Cultivation 2 (0+2)
Importance of mushroom cultivation and its landmarks; scope of mushroom cultivation in Himachal Pradesh; infrastructure; Introduction to various parameters of mushroom production; media preparation and culturing of fleshy fungi; sanitation and hygiene; preparation of mother culture, master culture and spawn; compost preparation by long and short methods of composting; collection of different casing materials and to prepare a suitable casing soil; characteristics of casing soil and its functions; important characteristics of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus spp. and Calocybe indica etc. and their cultivation, management of moisture, ventilation and environmental parameters affecting fruit body formation: study of important competitors, harvesting and post harvest handing of mushrooms; pests and pathogens of mushrooms and their control; Cultivation procedures of specialty mushrooms; visit to private mushroom growers; project formulation and marketing strategies.
Pl. Path. 477 Biocontrol Agents and Biopesticides 3 (1+2)
Importance of biocontrol agents and biopesticides in IPM and IDM; Components of biological control- parasitoids, predators, entomopathogens and antagonists; Conservation arid augmentation of natural enemies; Screening methods, evaluation, development and deployment of biocontrol agents; Protocol for screening and bioassay of biocontrol agents for the management of diseases; Biology and host relationship of important predators, parasitoids and bioagents; Mass multiplication of important biocontrol agents and their field use; Important biopesticide formulations; Successful examples of biological control of important insect-pests, diseases and weeds; Biocontrol agents//biopesticides related agencies; Limitation in the use of bioagents and biopesticides.
Requirements of biological control; Distinguishing features of important families of predators, parasitoids and bioagents; Collection, identification, preservation of natural enemies; Mass production of important predators, parasitoids and entomopathogens; Mass multiplication techniques of fungal and bacterial bioagents for the management of diseases; Production of HaNPV and SlNPV; Formulations of bioagents/biopesticides and their field application; Visit to State Biocontrol laboratory.
Ento. 477 Pesticides and Plant Protection Equipments 3 (1+2)
Classification and properties of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, bactericides and nematicides); Methods of evaluation of pesticides and their field application, compatibility and phytotoxicity; Pesticide formulations; Principles and working of plant protection equipments.
Study of contact, stomach and fumigant activity of insecticides; Familiarization with different pesticide formulations; Preparation of concentrations of pesticides and their in-vitro evaluation techniques. Calculation of field doses of different formulations of pesticides; Demonstration of methods of application of pesticides; Study of sprayers, dusters and seed dressers; Different types of spray nozzles, lances and booms; Calibration of different spraying equipments; Common defects in sprayers and dusters; Maintenance of plant protection equipments; Methods of safe handling of pesticides; Symptoms of pesticide poisoning and first aid treatments; Visit to Pesticide manufacturing units/laboratories.
PL PATH 501 MYCOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: Introduction, definition of different terms, basic concepts.
UNIT II: Importance of mycology in agriculture, Importance of fungi to man, history of mycology.
UNIT III: Concepts of nomenclature and classification, fungal biodiversity, reproduction in fungi.
UNIT IV: The comparative morphology, ultrastructure, characters of different groups of fungi up to generic level: (a) Myxomycota and (b) Eumycota- i) Mastigomycotina ii) Zygomycotina, iii) Ascomycotina, iv) Basidiomycotina, v) Deuteromycotina. Lichens, variability in fungi.
Practical: Detailed comparative study of different groups of fungi; collection, identification and preservation of specimens. Isolation and identification of plant pathogenic fungi.
PL PATH 502 PLANT VIROLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: History of plant viruses, composition and structure of viruses.
UNIT II: Symptomatology of important plant viral diseases, transmission, chemical and physical properties, virus-host interaction, virus-vector relationship.
UNIT III: Virus nomenclature and classification, genome organization, replication and movement of viruses.
UNIT IV: Virus isolation and purification, electron microscopy, protein and nucleic acid based diagnostics.
UNIT V: Mycoviruses, phytoplasma, arbo and baculoviruses, satellite viruses, satellite RNAs, phages, viroids, prions. Principles of the working of electron-microscope and ultra-microtome.
UNIT VI: Virus origin and evolution, mechanism of resistance, genetic engineering, ecology, and management of plant viruses.
Practical: Study of symptoms caused by viruses, transmission, assay of viruses, physical properties, purification, method of raising antisera, serological tests, electron microscopy and ultratomy, PCR.
PL PATH 503 PLANT BACTERIOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: History and introduction to phytopathogenic procarya, viz., bacteria, MLOs, spiroplasmas and other fastidious procarya. Importance of phytopathogenic bacteria.
UNIT II: Evolution, classification and nomenclature of phytopathogenic procarya and important diseases caused by them.
UNIT III: Growth, nutrition requirements, reproduction, preservation of bacterial cultures and variability among phytopathogenic procarya.
UNIT IV: General biology of bacteriophages, L form bacteria, plasmids and bdellovibrios.
UNIT V: Procaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action against phytopathogenic bacteria.
UNIT VI: Survival and dissemination of phytopathogenic bacteria.
Practical: Isolation, purification, identification and host inoculation of phytopathogenic bacteria, staining methods, biochemical and serological characterization, isolation of plasmid and use of antibacterial chemicals/antibiotics.
PL PATH 504 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 3+0
UNIT I: Importance, definitions and concepts of plant diseases, history and growth of plant pathology, biotic and abiotic causes and classification of plant diseases.
UNIT II: Pathogenesis- survival, growth, reproduction, and dispersal of important plant pathogens, role of environment and host nutrition on disease development.
UNIT III: Host parasite interaction, recognition concept and infection, symptomatology, mechanism of infection- role of enzymes, toxins, growth regulators; defense strategies- oxidative burst; Phenolics, Phytoalexins, PR proteins, Elicitors. Altered plant metabolism as affected by plant pathogens.
UNIT IV: Genetics of resistance; ‘R’ genes; mechanism of genetic variation in pathogens; molecular basis for resistance; marker-assisted selection; genetic engineering for disease resistance.
UNIT V: Disease management strategies.
PL PATH 505 DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF PLANT DISEASES 0+2
UNIT I: Methods to prove Koch’s postulates with biotroph and necrotroph pathogens, pure culture techniques, use of selective media to isolate pathogens.
UNIT II: Preservation of plant pathogens and disease specimens, use of haemocytometer, micrometer, centrifuge, pH meter, camera lucida.
UNIT III: Microscopic techniques and staining methods, phase contrast system, chromatography, use of electron microscope, spectrophotometer, ultracentrifuge and electrophoretic apparatus, disease diagnostics, serological and molecular techniques for detection of plant pathogens. Evaluation of fungicides, bactericides etc., field experiments, data collection and preparation of references.
PL PATH 506 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1
UNIT I: Principles of plant disease management through cultural, physical, biological, chemical, organic amendments and botanicals methods of plant disease control, integrated control measures (IDM- module) of plant diseases. Disease resistance and molecular approach for disease management.
UNIT II: Foliage, seed and soil application of chemicals, role of stickers, spreaders and other adjuvants, health vis-a-vis environmental hazards, residual effects and safety measures.
UNIT III: History of fungicides, bactericides, antibiotics, concepts of pathogen, immobilization, chemical protection and chemotherapy, nature, properties and mode of action of antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral chemicals.
Practical: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chemicals against plant pathogens; ED and MIC values, study of structural details of sprayers and dusters.
PL PATH 507 DISEASES OF FIELD AND MEDICINAL CROPS 2+1
UNIT I: Diseases of Cereal crops- wheat, barley, rice, pearl millet, sorghum and maize.
UNIT II: Diseases of Pulse crops- gram, common bean, urdbean, mungbean, lentil, pigeonpea, soybean.
UNIT III: Diseases of Oilseed crops- rapeseed and mustard, sesame, linseed, sunflower, groundnut, castor.
UNIT IV: Diseases of Cash crops- cotton, sugarcane.
UNIT V: Diseases of Fodder legume crops- berseem, oats, guar, lucerne, cowpea.
UNIT VI: Medicinal crops- plantago, liquorice, mulathi,, sacred basil, mentha, ashwagandha, Aloe vera.
Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host-parasite relationship of important diseases of above mentioned crops. Collection and dry preservation of diseased specimens of important crops.
PL PATH 508 DISEASES OF FRUITS, PLANTATION AND ORNAMENTAL CROPS 2+1
UNIT I: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of fruits like apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, walnut, almond, strawberry, citrus, mango, grapes, guava, ber, banana, pineapple, papaya, fig, pomegranate, date palm
UNIT II: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of plantation crops such as tea, coffee, rubber and coconut;
UNIT III: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of ornamental plants such as roses, gladiolus, tulip, carnation, orchids, marigold, chrysanthemum.
Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host parasite relationship of representative diseases of plantation crops. Collection and dry preservation of diseased specimens of important crops.
PL PATH 509 DISEASES OF VEGETABLE AND SPICES CROPS 2+1
UNIT I: Nature, prevalence, symptoms, factors affecting disease development and management of bulb crops, leafy vegetables, crucifers, cucurbits and solanaceaous vegetables.
UNIT II: Nature, prevalence, symptoms, factors affecting disease development and management under protected cultivation.
UNIT III: Symptoms, epidemiology and management of diseases of different spice crops such as black pepper, saffron, cumin, coriander, turmeric, fennel, fenugreek and ginger.
Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host pathogen interaction of important diseases of vegetable and spice crops.
PL PATH 510 SEED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: History and economic importance of seed pathology in seed industry, plant quarantine and SPS under WTO. Morphology and anatomy of typical monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous infected seeds.
UNIT II: Recent advances in the establishment and subsequent cause of disease development in seed and seedling. Localization and mechanism of seed transmission in relation to seed infection, seed to plant transmission of pathogens.
UNIT III: Seed certification and tolerance limits, types of losses caused by seed-borne diseases in true and vegetatively propagated seeds, evolutionary adaptations of crop plants to defend seed invasion by seed-borne pathogens. Epidemiological factors influencing the transmission of seed-borne diseases, forecasting of epidemics through seed-borne infection.
UNIT IV: Production of toxic metabolites affecting seed quality and its impact on human, animal and plant health, management of seed-borne pathogen/diseases and procedure for healthy seed production, seed health testing, methods for detecting microorganism.
Practical: Conventional and advanced techniques in the detection and identification of seed-borne fungi, bacteria and viruses. Relationship between seed-borne infection and expression of the disease in the field.
PL PATH 511 CHEMICALS IN PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1
UNIT I: History and development of chemicals; definition of pesticides and related terms; advantages and disadvantages of chemicals.
UNIT II: Classification of chemicals used in plant disease control and their characteristics.
UNIT III: Chemicals in plant disease control, viz., fungicides, bactericides, nematicides, antiviral chemicals and botanicals.
UNIT IV: Formulations, mode of action and application of different fungicides; chemotherapy and phytotoxicity of fungicides.
UNIT V: Handling, storage and precautions to be taken while using fungicides; compatibility with other agrochemicals, persistence, cost-benefit ratio, factor affecting fungicides.
UNIT VI: General account of plant protection appliances; environmental pollution, residues and health hazards, fungicidal resistance in plant pathogens and its management.
Practical: Acquaintance with formulation of different fungicides and plant protection appliances. Formulation of fungicides, bactericides and nematicides; in vitro evaluation techniques, preparation of different concentrations of chemicals including botanical pesticides based on active ingredients against pathogens; persistence, compatibility with other agro-chemicals; detection of naturally occurring fungicide resistant mutants of pathogen; methods of
application of chemicals.
PL PATH 512 ECOLOGY OF SOIL-BORNE PLANT PATHOGENS 2+1
UNIT I: Soil as an environment for plant pathogens, nature and importance of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, host exudates, soil and root inhabiting fungi. Types of biocontrol agents.
UNIT II: Inoculum potential and density in relation to host and soil variables, competition, predation, antibiosis and fungistasis.
UNIT III: Suppressive soils, biological control- concepts and potentialities for managing soil borne pathogens.
Practical: Quantification of rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora with special emphasis on pathogens; pathogenicity test by soil and root inoculation techniques, correlation between inoculum density of test pathogens and disease incidence, demonstration of fungistasis in natural soils; suppression
of test soil-borne pathogens by antagonistic microorganisms. Isolation and identification of different biocontrol agents.
PL PATH 513 DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS 2+0
UNIT I: Introduction and historical development, dynamics of pathogenicity, process of infection, variability in plant pathogens, gene centre’s as sources of resistance, disease resistance terminology.
UNIT II: Disease escapes, disease tolerance, disease resistance, types of resistance, identification of physiological races of pathogens, disease progression in relation to resistance, stabilizing selection pressure in plant pathogens.
UNIT III: Host defense system, morphological and anatomical resistance, preformed chemicals in host defense, post infectional chemicals in host defense, phytoalexins, hypersensitivity and its mechanisms.
UNIT IV: Gene-for-gene concept, protein-for-protein and immunization basis, management of resistance genes. Strategies for gene deployment.
PL PATH 514/ENT 514 INSECT VECTORS OF PLANT VIRUSES AND OTHER PATHOGENS 1+1
UNIT I: History of developments in the area of insects as vectors of plant pathogens. Important insect vectors and their characteristics; mouth parts and feeding processes of important insect vectors. Efficiency of transmission.
UNIT II: Transmission of plant viruses and fungal pathogens. Relation between viruses and their vectors.
UNIT III: Transmission of plant viruses by aphids, whiteflies, mealy bugs and thrips.
UNIT IV: Transmission of mycoplasma and bacteria by leaf hoppers and plant hoppers.
UNIT V: Transmission of plant viruses by psyllids, beetles and mites.
UNIT VI: Epidemiology and management of insect transmitted diseases through vector management.
Practical: Identification of common vectors of plant pathogens- aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, thrips, beetles, nematodes; culturing and handling of vectors; demonstration of virus transmission through vectors- aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies.
PL PATH 515 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES 2+1
UNIT I: Concept of biological control, definitions, importance, principles of plant disease management with bioagents, history of biological control, merits and demerits of biological control.
UNIT II: Types of biological interactions, competition, mycoparasitism, exploitation for hypovirulence, rhizosphere colonization, competitive saprophytic ability, antibiosis, induced resistance, mycorrhizal associations, operational mechanisms and its relevance in biological control.
UNIT III: Factors governing biological control, role of physical environment, agroecosystem, operational mechanisms and cultural practices in biological control of pathogens, pathogens and antagonists and their relationship, biocontrol agents, comparative approaches to biological control of plant pathogens by resident and introduced antagonists, control of soil-borne and foliar diseases. Compatibility of different bioagents.
UNIT IV: Commercial production of antagonists-mass multiplication and preparation of formulation, their delivery systems, application and monitoring, biological control in IDM, IPM and organic farming system, biopesticides available in market. Quality control system of biocontrol agents.
Practical: Isolation, characterization and maintenance of antagonists, methods of study of mechanisms of antagonism in vitro, application of antagonists against pathogen in vivo conditions. Enumeration of antagonists.
PL PATH 516 INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1
UNIT I: Introduction, definition, concept and tools of disease management, components of integrated disease management- their limitations and implications.
UNIT II: Development of IDM- basic principles, biological, chemical and cultural disease management.
UNIT III: IDM in important crops- rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, chickpea, rapeseed mustard, pearlmillet, kharif pulses, vegetable crops and fruit crops.
Practical: Application of biological, cultural, chemical and biocontrol agents, their compatibility and integration in IDM; demonstration of IDM in certain crops as project work.
PL PATH 517 MUSHROOM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: Historical development of mushroom cultivation and present status, taxonomy, classification, uses of mushrooms, edible and poisonous mushrooms.
UNIT II: Maintenance of pure culture, preparation of spawn and facilities required for establishing commercial spawn lab. strain improvement.
UNIT III: Preparation of substrate for mushroom cultivation, long, short and indoor composting methods, formulae for different composts and their computation, qualities and testing of compost, uses of spent mushroom compost/substrate, spawning and spawn run, casing preparation and its application.
UNIT IV: Setting up mushroom farm for seasonal and environmentally control cultivation, requirement and maintenance of temperature, relative humidity, CO2, ventilation in cropping rooms, cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sp., Calocybe indica, Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum.
UNIT V: Insect pests, diseases and abnormalities of cultivated mushroom and their management, post harvest processing and value addition, economics of mushroom cultivation, biotechnology and mushroom cultivation.
Practical: Preparation of spawn, compost, spawning, casing, harvesting and postharvest handling of edible mushroom; identification of various pathogens, competitors of various mushroom.
PL PATH 518 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND FORECASTING OF PLANT DISEASES 2+1
UNIT I: Epidemic concept and historical development, pathometry and crop growth stages, epidemic growth and analysis.
UNIT II: Common and natural logrithms, function fitting area under disease progress curve and correction factors, inoculum dynamics, population biology of pathogens, temporal spatial variability in plant pathogens.
UNIT III: Survey, surveillance and vigilance, crop loss assessment and models for prediction of crop losses.
UNIT IV: Principles and pre-requisites of forecasting, systems and factors affecting various components of forecastings, some early forecasting, procedures based on weather and inoculum potential, modeling disease growth and disease prediction.
Practical: Measuring diseases, spore dispersal and trapping, weather recording, survey, multiplication of inoculum, computerized data analysis, function fitting, model preparation and validation.
PL PATH 519 POST HARVEST DISEASES 2+1
UNIT I: Concept of post harvest diseases, definitions, importance with reference to environment and health, principles of plant disease management as preharvest and post-harvest, merits and demerits of biological/phytoextracts in controlling post-harvest diseases.
UNIT II: Types of post harvest problems both by biotic and abiotic causes, rhizosphere colonization, competitive, saprophytic ability, antibiosis, induced resistance, microbial associations, concept, operational mechanisms and its relevance in control.
UNIT III: Factors governing post harvest problems both as biotic and abiotic, role of physical environment, agro-ecosystem leading to quiescent infection, operational mechanisms and cultural practices in perpetuation of pathogens, pathogens and antagonist and their relationship, role of biocontrol agents and chemicals in controlling post-harvest diseases, comparative approaches to control plant pathogens by resident and introduced antagonists. Isolation, characterization and maintenance of pathogens, role of different storage.
UNIT IV: Integrated approach in controlling diseases and improving the shelf life of produce, control of aflatoxigenic and mycotoxigenic fungi, application and monitoring for any health hazard, knowledge of Codex Alimentarious for each product and commodity.
Practical: Isolation, characterization and maintenance of pathogens, role of different storage conditions on disease development, application of antagonists against pathogens in vivo and in vitro conditions. Comparative efficacy of different chemicals, fungicides, phytoextracts and bioagents.
PL PATH 520/ ENT 520 PLANT QUARANTINE 2+0
UNIT I: Definition of pest, pesticides and transgenics as per Govt. notification; relative importance; quarantine – domestic and international. Quarantine restrictions in the movement of agricultural produce, seeds and planting material; case histories of exotic pests/diseases and their status.
UNIT II: Plant protection organization in India. Acts related to registration of pesticides and transgenics. History of quarantine legislations, PQ Order 2003. Environmental Acts, Industrial registration; APEDA, Import and Export of bio-control agents.
UNIT III: Identification of pest/disease free areas; contamination of food with Toxigens and microorganisms, and their elimination; Symptomatic diagnosis and other techniques to detect pest/pathogen infestations; VHT and other safer techniques of disinfestation/salvaging of infected material.
UNIT IV: WTO regulations; non-tariff barriers; Pest Risk Analysis (PRA), good practices for pesticide laboratories; pesticide industry; Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures.
PL PATH 591 MASTER’S SEMINAR 1+0
PL PATH 592 SPECIAL PROBLEM IN M.SC. 0+1
PL PATH 599 MASTER’S RESEARCH 0+20
PL PATH 601 ADVANCED MYCOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: General introduction, historical development and advances in mycology.
UNIT II: Recent taxonomic criteria, morphological, Chemical (chemotaxonomy) and Molecular.
UNIT III: Interaction between groups: Phylogeny. Conidiogenesis and sporulating structures of fungi imperfecti. Morphology and reproduction of representative plant pathogenic genera from differentgroups of fungi. Sexual reproduction.
UNIT IV: Population biology, pathogenic variability/vegetative compatibility.
UNIT V: Heterokaryosis and parasexual cycle. Sex hormones in fungi. Pleomorphism and speciation in fungi. Mechanism of nuclear inheritance. Mechanism of extra-nuclear inheritance. Biodegradation.
Practical: Study of conidiogenesis- phialides, porospores, arthospores. Study of fruit bodies in Ascomycotina. Identification of fungi up to species level. Study of hyphal anastomosis. Morphology of representative plant pathogenic genera from different groups of fungi.
PL PATH 602 ADVANCED VIROLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: Recent advances in plant virology, virus-vector relationship, bimodal transmission and taxonomy of vectors and viruses, Mechanism of virus transmission by vectors, vector specificity for classes of viruses, virus replication, assembly and architecture, ultrastructural changes due to virus infection, variation, mutation and virus strains.
UNIT II: Immunoglobulin structure and functions of various domains, methods of immune-diagnosis, hybridoma technology and use of monoclonal antibodies in identification of viruses and their strains, Polymerase Chain Reaction.
UNIT III: Genome organization, replication, transcription and translational strategies of pararetroviruses and gemini viruses, satellite viruses and satellite RNA, genome organization in tobamo-, poty-, bromo, cucumo, ilar, gemini and tospoviruses.
UNIT IV: Gene expression and regulation, viral promoters, molecular mechanism of host-virus interactions, virus induced gene, molecular mechanism of vector transmission, symptom expression, viroids and prions.
UNIT V: Genetic engineering with plant viruses, viral suppressors, a RNAi dynamics, resistant genes. Viruses potential as vectors, genetically engineered resistance, transgenic plants.
UNIT VI: Techniques and application of tissue culture. Origin, evolution and interrelationship with animal viruses.
Practical: Purification of virus(es), SDS-PAGE for molecular weight determination, production of polyclonal antiserum, purification of IgG and conjugate preparation, serological techniques (i) DAC-ELISA (ii) DAS -ELISA (iii) DIBA (iv) Western blots (v) (ab) 2-ELISA, vector transmission (one each with aphid, leaf hopper and whitefly), methods for collecting vectors and their maintenance, nucleic acid isolation, DOT-blot, southern hybridization, probe preparation and autoradiography, PCR application and viral genome cloning, sequencing annotation of genes.
PL PATH 603 ADVANCED BACTERIOLOGY 2+1
UNIT I: Current approaches for the characterization and identification of phytopathogenic bacteria. Ultrastructures and biology of bacteria.
UNIT II: Current trends in taxonomy of phytopathogenic procarya.
UNIT III: Role of enzyme, toxin, exopolysaccharide, polypeptide signals in disease development. Mechanism of wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) development, mechanism of soft rot (Erwinia spp.) development, mechanism of Crown gall formation (Agrobacterium tumifaciens).
UNIT IV: Host-bacterial pathogen interaction, quorum-sensing phenomenon, Type III secretion system, HR/SR reactions, R-genes, Avr-genes, hrp genes, Effector protein.
UNIT V: Molecular variability among phytopathogenic procarya and possible host defense mechanism(s). Genetic engineering for management of bacterial plant pathogens-gene silencing, RNAi technology.
UNIT VI: Epidemiology in relation to bacterial plant pathogens. Development of diagnostic kit.
UNIT VII: Beneficial prokaryotes- Endophytes, PGPR, phylloplane bacteria and their role in disease management. Endosymbionts for host defense.
Practical: Pathogenic studies and race identification; plasmid profiling of bacteria; fatty acid profiling of bacteria; RAPD profiling of bacteria and variability status; Endospore, Flagellar staining; test for secondary metabolite production, cyanides, EPS, siderophore; specific detection of phytopathogenic bacteria using species/pathovar specific primers. Basic techniques in diagnostic kit development, molecular tools to identify phytoendosymbionts
PL PATH 604 MOLECULAR BASIS OF HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION 2+1
UNIT I: Importance and role of biotechnological tools in Plant Pathology- Basic concepts and principles to study host pathogen relationship.
UNIT II: Molecular basis of host-pathogen interaction- fungi, bacteria and viruses; recognition system, signal transduction.
UNIT III: Induction of defense responses- pathogenesis related proteins, HR, reactive oxygen species, phytoalexins and systemic acquired resistance, Programmed Cell Death, Viral induced gene silencing.
UNIT IV: Molecular basis of gene-for-gene hypothesis; R-gene expression and transcription profiling, mapping and cloning of resistance genes and marker-aided selection, pyramiding of R genes. UNIT V
Biotechnology and disease management; development of disease resistance plants using genetic engineering approaches, different methods of gene transfer, biosafety issues related to GM crops.
Practical: Protein, DNA and RNA isolation, Plasmids extraction,PCR analysis, DNA and Protein electrophoresis, bacterial transformation.
PL PATH 605 PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF CERTIFICATION 1+0
UNIT I: Introduction to certification. International scenario of certification and role of ISTA, EPPO, OECD etc. in certification and quality control.
UNIT II: Case studies of certification systems of USA and Europe. National Regulatory mechanism and certification system including seed certification, minimum seed certification standards. National status of seed health in seed certification. Methods for testing genetic identity, physical purity, germination percentage, seed health etc.
UNIT III: Fixing tolerance limits for diseases and insect pests in certification and quality control programmes. Methods used in certification of seeds, vegetative propagules and in vitro cultures. Accreditation of seed testing laboratories. Role of seed/ planting material health certification in national and international trade.
PL PATH 606 PLANT BIOSECURITY AND BIOSAFETY 2+0
UNIT I: History of biosecurity, Concept of biosecurity, Components of biosecurity, Quarantine, Invasive Alien Species, Biowarfare, Emerging/resurgence of pests and diseases.
UNIT II: National Regulatory Mechanism and International Agreements/Conventions viz., Agreement on Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures/World Trade Organization (WTO), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, pest risk analysis, risk assessment models, pest information system, early warning and forecasting system, use of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for plant biosecurity, pest/disease and epidemic management, strategies for combating risks and costs associated with agroterrorism event and its mitigation planning and integrated approach for biosecurity. Biosafety, policies and regulatory mechanism, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and its implications, Issues related to release of genetically modified crops.
PL PATH 691 DOCTORAL SEMINAR I 1+0
PL PATH 692 DOCTORAL SEMINAR II 1+0
PL PATH 693 SPECIAL PROBLEM IN PH.D. 0+1
PL PATH 699 DOCTORAL RESEARCH 0+45