PLANT PATHOLOGY

Courses in Glance

UG courses

Pl. Path. 121

Fundamentals of Plant Pathology

3(2+1)

Pl. Path 352

Principles of Integrated Disease Management

3(2+1)

Pl. Path 353

Diseases of Field and Horticultural Crops and their Management-I

3(2+1)

Pl. Path. 364

Diseases  of Field and Horticultural Crops and their Management-II

3(2+1)

Experience learning

Mushroom Cultivation

0+10

PG Courses

M.Sc

Pl Path 501

Mycology

2+1

Pl Path 502

Plant Virology

2+1

Pl Path 503

Plant Bacteriology

2+1

Pl Path 504

Principles of Plant Pathology

3+0

Pl Path 505

Detection and Diagnosis of Plant Diseases

0+2

Pl Path 506

Principles of Plant Disease Management

2+1

Pl Path 507

Diseases of Field and Medicinal Crops

2+1

Pl Path 508

Diseases of Fruits, Plantation and Ornamental Crops

2+1

Pl Path 509

Diseases of Vegetable and Spices Crops

2+1

Pl Path 510

Seed Health Technology

2+1

Pl Path 511

Chemicals in Plant Disease Management

2+1

Pl Path 512

Ecology of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens

2+1

Pl Path 513

Disease Resistance in Plants

2+0

Pl Path 514

Insect Vectors of Plant Viruses and Other Pathogens

1+1

Pl Path 515

Biological Control of Plant Diseases

2+1

Pl Path 516

Integrated Disease Management

2+1

Pl Path 517

Mushroom Production Technology

2+1

Pl Path 518

Epidemiology and Forecasting of Plant Diseases

2+1

Pl Path 519

Post-Harvest Diseases

2+1

Pl Path 520

Plant Quarantine

2+0

Pl Path 591

Master’s Seminar

1+0

Pl Path 599

Master’s Research

20

Ph.D

Pl Path 601

Advanced Mycology

2+1

Pl Path 602

Advanced Virology

2+1

Pl Path 603

Advanced Bacteriology

2+1

Pl Path 604

Molecular Basis of Host-Pathogen Interaction

2+1

Pl Path 605

Principles and Procedures of Certification

1+0

Pl Path 606

Plant Biosecurity and Biosafety

2+0

Pl Path 691

Doctoral Seminar I

1+0

Pl Path 692

Doctoral Seminar II

1+0

Pl Path 699

Doctoral Research

45

 

Course Contents

a.   Under Graduate

Pl. Path. 121: Fundamentals of Plant Pathology                                    Credit hours: 3(2+1)

Theory

Introduction: Importance of plant diseases, scope and objectives of Plant Pathology. History of Plant Pathology with special reference to Indian work. Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology. Pathogenesis. Cause and classification of plant diseases. Important  plant  pathogenic  organisms,    different  groups: fungi,  bacteria, fastidious  vesicular  bacteria,  phytoplasmas,  spiroplasmas,  viruses,  viroids,  algae,  protozoa and phanerogamic  parasites with  examples  of  diseases  caused  by  them. Diseases and symptoms due to abiotic causes.

Fungi:         general characters, definition of fungus, somatic structures, types of fungal thalli, fungal tissues, modifications of thallus, reproduction (asexual and sexual). Nomenclature, Binomial system of nomenclature, rules of nomenclature, classification of fungi. Key to divisions, sub-divisions, orders and classes.

Bacteria and mollicutes: general morphological characters. Basic methods of classification and reproduction.

Viruses: nature, architecture, multiplication and transmission.

Study of phanerogamic plant parasites.

Principles and methods of plant disease management. Role of Biotechnology in Plant Pathology

Nature, chemical combination, classification, mode of action and formulations of fungicides and antibiotics.

 

Practical

Acquaintance with various laboratory equipment’s and microscopy. Preparation of media, isolation and Koch’s postulates. General study of different structures of fungi. Study of symptoms of various plant diseases. Study of representative fungal genera. Staining and identification of plant pathogenic bacteria. Transmission of plant viruses. Study of phanerogamic plant parasites.

Study of fungicides and their formulations. Methods of pesticide application and their safe use. Calculation of fungicide sprays concentrations.

 

Pl.Path. 352: Principles of Integrated Disease Management     Credit hours: 3(2+1)

Theory

IPM: Introduction, history, importance, concepts, principles and tools of IDM. Economic importance of plant diseases. Methods of detection and diagnosis of plant diseases. Survey, surveillance and forecasting of plant diseases. Study of Plant disease epidemiology. Methods of disease management: Host plant resistance, cultural, physical, legislative, biological and chemical control. Ecological management of crop environment. Introduction to conventional pesticides for the plant disease management. Development and validation of IDM module. Implementation and impact of IDM module for plant disease management. Safety issues in pesticide uses. Case histories of important IDM programmes.

Practical

Methods of diagnosis and detection of various plant diseases. Methods of plant disease measurement. Monitoring of plant diseases in field. Study of disease progress of diseases with relation to envriormental factores.Isolation, screening and Identification of biocontrol agents. Mass multiplication of Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, etc. Bio-efficacy of fungicides in plant disease control. Awareness campaign at farmers fields.

Pl. Path. 353: Diseases of Field and Horticultural Crops and their Management-I

Credit hours: 3(2+1)

Theory

Symptoms, etiology, disease cycle and management of major diseases of following crops:

Field Crops: Rice: blast, brown spot, bacterial blight, sheath blight, false smut, khaira and tungro; Maize: stalk rots, downy mildew, leaf spots; Sorghum: smuts, grain mold and anthracnose, Bajra: downy mildew and ergot; Groundnut: early and late leaf spots, wilt Soybean: Rhizoctonia blight, frogeye leaf spot, bacterial spot, pod blight, seed and seedling rot and mosaic; Pigeonpea: Phytophthora blight, wilt and sterility mosaic; Finger millet: Blast and leaf spot; black & green gram: Cercospora leaf spot and anthracnose, web blight and yellow mosaic; Castor: Phytophthora blight; Cotton: anthracnose, vascular wilt, and black arm; Tobacco: black shank, black root rot and mosaic. Horticultural Crops: Guava: wilt and anthracnose; Banana: Panama wilt, bacterial wilt, Sigatoka and bunchy top; Papaya: foot rot, leaf curl and mosaic, Brinjal: Phomopsis blight and fruit rot and Sclerotinia blight; Tomato: damping off,  wilt, early and late blight, buck eye rot and leaf curl and mosaic;  Okra: Yellow Vein Mosaic; Beans: anthracnose and  bacterial blight; Cucurbits: downy mildew, powdery mildew, wilt; Chilies: anthracnose and fruit rot, wilt and leaf curl; Ginger: soft rot; Turmeric: leaf spot; Colocasia: Phytophthora blight; Coconut: wilt and bud rot; Tea: blister blight; Coffee: rust

Practical

Identification and histopathological studies of selected diseases of field and horticultural crops covered in theory. Field visit for the diagnosis of field problems. Collection and preservation of plant diseased specimens for Herbarium; Note: Students should submit 50 pressed and well-mounted specimens.

 

Pl. Path. 364: Diseases of Field and Horticultural Crops and their Management-II

Credit hours: 3(2+1)

Theory

Symptoms, etiology, disease cycle and management of following diseases:

Field Crops:

Wheat: rusts, loose smut, karnal bunt, powdery mildew, alternaria blight, and ear cockle;

Sugarcane: red rot, smut, wilt, grassy shoot, ratoon stunting and Pokkah Boeng;

Sunflower: Sclerotinia stem rot and Alternaria blight; Mustard: Alternaria blight, white rust, downy mildew and Sclerotinia stem rot; Gram: wilt, grey mould and Ascochyta blight; Lentil: rust and wilt; Pea: downy mildew, powdery mildew, root rot/wilt, Ascochyta blight and rust Horticultural Crops: Mango:  anthracnose, malformation, bacterial blight and powdery mildew; Citrus: canker and gummosis; Grape vine: downy mildew, Powdery mildew and anthracnose; Apple: scab, powdery mildew, collar rot, white root rot, fire blight and crown gall; Peach: leaf curl; Pomegranate: bacterial blight; Strawberry: leaf spot

Potato: early and late blight, black scurf, leaf roll, and mosaic; Cruciferous vegetables:  Alternaria leaf spot and black rot; Onion and garlic: downy mildew, purple blotch, and Stemphylium blight; Coriander: stem gall Marigold: Botrytis blight; Rose: dieback, powdery mildew and black leaf spot. Carnation; fusaium wilt, leaf blight, Lilium; bulb rot

Practical

Identification and histopathological studies of selected diseases of field and horticultural crops covered in theory. Field visit for the diagnosis of field problems. Collection and preservation of plant diseased specimens for herbarium.

B. Post Graduate

PL PATH 501 MYCOLOGY                                          2+1                                 

Theory

UNIT I: Introduction, definition of different terms, basic concepts.

UNIT II: Importance of mycology in agriculture, Importance of fungi to man, history of mycology.

UNIT III: Concepts of nomenclature and classification, fungal biodiversity, reproduction in fungi.

UNIT IV: The comparative morphology, ultrastructure, characters of different groups of fungi up to generic level: (a) Myxomycota and (b) Eumycota- i) Mastigomycotina ii) Zygomycotina, iii) Ascomycotina, iv) Basidiomycotina, v) Deuteromycotina. Lichens, variability in fungi.

Practical: Detailed comparative study of different groups of fungi; collection, identification and preservation of specimens. Isolation and identification of plant pathogenic fungi.

 

PL PATH 502 PLANT VIROLOGY                                2+1                             

Theory

UNIT I: History of plant viruses, composition and structure of viruses.

UNIT II: Symptomatology of important plant viral diseases, transmission, chemical and physical properties, virus-host interaction, virus-vector relationship.

UNIT III: Virus nomenclature and classification, genome organization, replication and movement of viruses.

UNIT IV: Virus isolation and purification, electron microscopy, protein and nucleic acid based diagnostics.

UNIT V: Mycoviruses, phytoplasma, arbo and baculoviruses, satellite viruses, satellite RNAs, phages, viroids, prions. Principles of the working of electron-microscope and ultra-microtome.

UNIT VI: Virus origin and evolution, mechanism of resistance, genetic engineering, ecology, and management of plant viruses.

Practical: Study of symptoms caused by viruses, transmission, assay of viruses, physical properties, purification, method of raising antisera, serological tests, electron microscopy and ultratomy, PCR.

 

PL PATH 503 PLANT BACTERIOLOGY                      2+1                            

Theory

UNIT I: History and introduction to phytopathogenic procarya, viz., bacteria, MLOs, spiroplasmas and other fastidious procarya. Importance of phytopathogenic bacteria.

UNIT II: Evolution, classification and nomenclature of phytopathogenic procarya and important diseases caused by them.

UNIT III: Growth, nutrition requirements, reproduction, preservation of bacterial cultures and variability among phytopathogenic procarya.

UNIT IV: General biology of bacteriophages, L form bacteria, plasmids and bdellovibrios.

UNIT V: Procaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action against phytopathogenic bacteria.

UNIT VI: Survival and dissemination of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Practical: Isolation, purification, identification and host inoculation of phytopathogenic bacteria, staining methods, biochemical and serological characterization, isolation of plasmid and use of antibacterial chemicals/antibiotics.

 

PL PATH 504 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT PATHOLOGY         3+0                 

Theory

UNIT I: Importance, definitions and concepts of plant diseases, history and growth of plant pathology, biotic and abiotic causes and classification of plant diseases.

UNIT II: Pathogenesis- survival, growth, reproduction, and dispersal of important plant pathogens, role of environment and host nutrition on disease development.

UNIT III: Host parasite interaction, recognition concept and infection, symptomatology, mechanism of infection- role of enzymes, toxins, growth regulators; defense strategies- oxidative burst; Phenolics, Phytoalexins, PR proteins, Elicitors. Altered plant metabolism as affected by plant pathogens.

UNIT IV: Genetics of resistance; ‘R’ genes; mechanism of genetic variation in pathogens; molecular basis for resistance; marker-assisted selection; genetic engineering for disease resistance.

UNIT V: Disease management strategies.

 

PL PATH 505 DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF PLANT DISEASES    0+2   

Practical

UNIT I: Methods to prove Koch’s postulates with biotroph and necrotroph pathogens, pure culture techniques, use of selective media to isolate pathogens.

UNIT II: Preservation of plant pathogens and disease specimens, use of haemocytometer, micrometer, centrifuge, pH meter, camera lucida.

UNIT III: Microscopic techniques and staining methods, phase contrast system, chromatography, use of electron microscope, spectrophotometer,  ultracentrifuge and electrophoretic apparatus, disease diagnostics, serological and molecular techniques for detection of plant pathogens. Evaluation of fungicides, bactericides etc., field experiments, data collection and preparation of references.

 

PL PATH 506 PRINCIPLES OF PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1   

Theory

UNIT I: Principles of plant disease management through cultural, physical, biological, chemical, organic amendments and botanicals methods of plant disease control, integrated control measures (IDM- module) of plant diseases. Disease resistance and molecular approach for disease management.

UNIT II: Foliage, seed and soil application of chemicals, role of stickers, spreaders and other adjuvants, health vis-a-vis environmental hazards, residual effects and safety measures.

UNIT III: History of fungicides, bactericides, antibiotics, concepts of pathogen, immobilization, chemical protection and chemotherapy, nature, properties and mode of action of antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral chemicals.

Practical: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chemicals against plant pathogens; ED and MIC values, study of structural details of sprayers and dusters.

 

PL PATH 507 DISEASES OF FIELD AND MEDICINAL CROPS  2+1          

Theory

UNIT I: Diseases of Cereal crops- wheat, barley, rice, pearl millet, sorghum and maize.

UNIT II: Diseases of Pulse crops- gram, common bean, urdbean, mungbean, lentil, pigeonpea, soybean.

UNIT III: Diseases of Oilseed crops- rapeseed and mustard, sesame, linseed, sunflower, groundnut, castor.

UNIT IV: Diseases of Cash crops- cotton, sugarcane.

UNIT V: Diseases of Fodder legume crops- berseem, oats, guar, lucerne, cowpea.

UNIT VI: Medicinal crops- plantago, liquorice, mulathi,, sacred basil, mentha, ashwagandha, Aloe vera.

Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host-parasite relationship of important diseases of above mentioned crops. Collection and dry preservation of diseased specimens of important crops.

 

PL PATH 508 DISEASES OF FRUITS, PLANTATION AND ORNAMENTAL CROPS 2+1

Theory

UNIT I: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of fruits  like apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, walnut, almond, strawberry, citrus, mango, grapes, guava, ber, banana, pineapple, papaya, fig, pomegranate, date palm

UNIT II: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of plantation crops such as tea, coffee, rubber and coconut;

UNIT III: Introduction, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology and management of different diseases of ornamental plants such as roses, gladiolus, tulip, carnation, orchids, marigold, chrysanthemum.

Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host parasite relationship of representative diseases of plantation crops. Collection and dry preservation of diseased specimens of important crops.

 

PL PATH 509 DISEASES OF VEGETABLE AND SPICES CROPS 2+1          

Theory

UNIT I: Nature, prevalence, symptoms, factors affecting disease development and management of bulb crops, leafy vegetables, crucifers, cucurbits and solanaceaous vegetables.

UNIT II: Nature, prevalence, symptoms, factors affecting disease development and management under protected cultivation.

UNIT III: Symptoms, epidemiology and management of diseases of different spice crops such as black pepper, saffron, cumin, coriander, turmeric, fennel, fenugreek and ginger.

Practical: Detailed study of symptoms and host pathogen interaction of important diseases of vegetable and spice crops.

 

 

 

 

PL PATH 510 SEED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY           2+1                             

Theory

UNIT I: History and economic importance of seed pathology in seed industry, plant quarantine and SPS under WTO. Morphology and anatomy of typical monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous infected seeds.

UNIT II: Recent advances in the establishment and subsequent cause of disease development in seed and seedling. Localization and mechanism of seed transmission in relation to seed infection, seed to plant transmission of pathogens.

UNIT III: Seed certification and tolerance limits, types of losses caused by seed-borne diseases in true and vegetatively propagated seeds, evolutionary adaptations of crop plants to defend seed invasion by seed-borne pathogens. Epidemiological factors influencing the transmission of seed-borne diseases, forecasting of epidemics through seed-borne infection.

UNIT IV: Production of toxic metabolites affecting seed quality and its impact on human, animal and plant health, management of seed-borne pathogen/diseases and procedure for healthy seed production, seed health testing, methods for detecting microorganism.

Practical: Conventional and advanced techniques in the detection and identification of seed-borne fungi, bacteria and viruses. Relationship between seed-borne infection and expression of the disease in the field.

 

PL PATH 511 CHEMICALS IN PLANT DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1 

Theory

UNIT I: History and development of chemicals; definition of pesticides and related terms; advantages and disadvantages of chemicals.

UNIT II: Classification of chemicals used in plant disease control and their characteristics.

UNIT III: Chemicals in plant disease control, viz., fungicides, bactericides, nematicides, antiviral chemicals and botanicals.

UNIT IV: Formulations, mode of action and application of different fungicides; chemotherapy and phytotoxicity of fungicides.

UNIT V: Handling, storage and precautions to be taken while using fungicides; compatibility with other agrochemicals, persistence, cost-benefit ratio, factor affecting fungicides.

UNIT VI: General account of plant protection appliances; environmental pollution, residues and health hazards, fungicidal resistance in plant pathogens and its management.

Practical: Acquaintance with formulation of different fungicides and plant protection appliances. Formulation of fungicides, bactericides and nematicides; in vitro evaluation techniques, preparation of different concentrations of chemicals including botanical pesticides based on active ingredients against pathogens; persistence, compatibility with other agro-chemicals; detection of naturally occurring fungicide resistant mutants of pathogen; methods of

application of chemicals.

 

PL PATH 512 ECOLOGY OF SOIL-BORNE PLANT PATHOGENS 2+1       

Theory

UNIT I: Soil as an environment for plant pathogens, nature and importance of rhizosphere and rhizoplane, host exudates, soil and root inhabiting fungi. Types of biocontrol agents.

UNIT II: Inoculum potential and density in relation to host and soil variables, competition, predation, antibiosis and fungistasis.

 UNIT III: Suppressive soils, biological control- concepts and potentialities for managing soil borne pathogens.

Practical: Quantification of rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora with special emphasis on pathogens; pathogenicity test by soil and root inoculation techniques, correlation between inoculum density of test pathogens and disease incidence, demonstration of fungistasis in natural soils; suppression

of test soil-borne pathogens by antagonistic microorganisms. Isolation and identification of different biocontrol agents.

 

PL PATH 513 DISEASE RESISTANCE IN PLANTS  2+0                              

Theory

UNIT I: Introduction and historical development, dynamics of pathogenicity, process of infection, variability in plant pathogens, gene centre’s as sources of resistance, disease resistance terminology.

UNIT II: Disease escapes, disease tolerance, disease resistance, types of resistance, identification of physiological races of pathogens, disease progression in relation to resistance, stabilizing selection pressure in plant pathogens.

UNIT III: Host defense system, morphological and anatomical resistance, preformed chemicals in host defense, post infectional chemicals in host defense, phytoalexins, hypersensitivity and its mechanisms.

UNIT IV: Gene-for-gene concept, protein-for-protein and immunization basis, management of resistance genes. Strategies for gene deployment.

 

PL PATH 514/ENT 514 INSECT VECTORS OF PLANT VIRUSES AND OTHER PATHOGENS                      1+1     

Theory

UNIT I: History of developments in the area of insects as vectors of plant pathogens. Important insect vectors and their characteristics; mouth parts and feeding processes of important insect vectors. Efficiency of transmission.

UNIT II: Transmission of plant viruses and fungal pathogens. Relation between viruses and their vectors.

UNIT III: Transmission of plant viruses by aphids, whiteflies, mealy bugs and thrips.

 UNIT IV: Transmission of mycoplasma and bacteria by leaf hoppers and plant hoppers.

UNIT V: Transmission of plant viruses by psyllids, beetles and mites.

UNIT VI: Epidemiology and management of insect transmitted diseases through vector management.

Practical: Identification of common vectors of plant pathogens- aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies, thrips, beetles, nematodes; culturing and handling of vectors; demonstration of virus transmission through vectors- aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies.

 

PL PATH 515 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES     2+1       

Theory

UNIT I: Concept of biological control, definitions, importance, principles of plant disease management with bioagents, history of biological control, merits and demerits of biological control.

UNIT II: Types of biological interactions, competition, mycoparasitism, exploitation for hypovirulence, rhizosphere colonization, competitive saprophytic ability, antibiosis, induced resistance, mycorrhizal associations, operational mechanisms and its relevance in biological control.

UNIT III: Factors governing biological control, role of physical environment, agroecosystem, operational mechanisms and cultural practices in biological control of pathogens, pathogens and antagonists and their relationship, biocontrol agents, comparative approaches to biological control of plant pathogens by resident and introduced antagonists, control of soil-borne and foliar diseases. Compatibility of different bioagents.

UNIT IV: Commercial production of antagonists-mass multiplication and preparation of formulation, their delivery systems, application and monitoring, biological control in IDM, IPM and organic farming system, biopesticides available in market. Quality control system of biocontrol agents.

Practical: Isolation, characterization and maintenance of antagonists, methods of study of mechanisms of antagonism in vitro, application of antagonists against pathogen  in vivo conditions. Enumeration of antagonists.

 

PL PATH 516 INTEGRATED DISEASE MANAGEMENT 2+1                         

Theory

UNIT I: Introduction, definition, concept and tools of disease management, components of integrated disease management- their limitations and implications.

 UNIT II: Development of IDM- basic principles, biological, chemical and cultural disease management.

UNIT III: IDM in important crops- rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, chickpea, rapeseed mustard, pearlmillet, kharif pulses, vegetable crops and fruit crops.

Practical: Application of biological, cultural, chemical and biocontrol agents, their compatibility and integration in IDM; demonstration of IDM in certain crops as project work.

 

PL PATH 517 MUSHROOM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY          2+1         

Theory

UNIT I: Historical development of mushroom cultivation and present status, taxonomy, classification, uses of mushrooms, edible and poisonous mushrooms.

UNIT II: Maintenance of pure culture, preparation of spawn and facilities required for establishing commercial spawn lab. strain improvement.

UNIT III: Preparation of substrate for mushroom cultivation, long, short and indoor composting methods, formulae for different composts and their computation, qualities and testing of compost, uses of spent mushroom compost/substrate, spawning and spawn run, casing preparation and its application.

UNIT IV: Setting up mushroom farm for seasonal and environmentally control cultivation, requirement and maintenance of temperature, relative humidity, CO2, ventilation in cropping rooms, cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sp., Calocybe indica, Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma lucidum.

 UNIT V: Insect pests, diseases and abnormalities of cultivated mushroom and their management, post harvest processing and value addition, economics of mushroom cultivation, biotechnology and mushroom cultivation.

Practical: Preparation of spawn, compost, spawning, casing, harvesting and postharvest handling of edible mushroom; identification of various pathogens, competitors of various mushroom.

 

PL PATH 518 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND FORECASTING OF PLANT DISEASES     2+1

 

Theory

UNIT I: Epidemic concept and historical development, pathometry and crop growth stages, epidemic growth and analysis.

UNIT II: Common and natural logrithms, function fitting area under disease progress curve and correction factors, inoculum dynamics, population biology of pathogens, temporal spatial variability in plant pathogens.

UNIT III: Survey, surveillance and vigilance, crop loss assessment and models for prediction of crop losses.

UNIT IV: Principles and pre-requisites of forecasting, systems and factors affecting various components of forecastings, some early forecasting, procedures based on weather and inoculum potential, modeling disease growth and disease prediction.

Practical: Measuring diseases, spore dispersal and trapping, weather recording, survey, multiplication of inoculum, computerized data analysis, function fitting, model preparation and validation.

 

PL PATH 519 POST HARVEST DISEASES          2+1                                           

Theory

UNIT I: Concept of post harvest diseases, definitions, importance with reference to environment and health, principles of plant disease management as preharvest and post-harvest, merits and demerits of biological/phytoextracts in controlling post-harvest diseases.

UNIT II: Types of post harvest problems both by biotic and abiotic causes, rhizosphere colonization, competitive, saprophytic ability, antibiosis, induced resistance, microbial associations, concept, operational mechanisms and its relevance in control.

UNIT III: Factors governing post harvest problems both as biotic and abiotic, role of physical environment, agro-ecosystem leading to quiescent infection, operational mechanisms and cultural practices in perpetuation of pathogens, pathogens and antagonist and their relationship, role of biocontrol agents and chemicals in controlling post-harvest diseases, comparative approaches to control plant pathogens by resident and introduced antagonists. Isolation, characterization and maintenance of pathogens, role of different storage.

UNIT IV: Integrated approach in controlling diseases and improving the shelf life of produce, control of aflatoxigenic and mycotoxigenic fungi, application and monitoring for any health hazard, knowledge of Codex Alimentarious for each product and commodity.

Practical: Isolation, characterization and maintenance of pathogens, role of different storage conditions on disease development, application of antagonists against pathogens in vivo and in vitro conditions. Comparative efficacy of different chemicals, fungicides, phytoextracts and bioagents.

 

PL PATH 520/ ENT 520  PLANT QUARANTINE      2+0                                

Theory

UNIT I: Definition of pest, pesticides and transgenics as per Govt. notification; relative importance; quarantine – domestic and international. Quarantine restrictions in the movement of agricultural produce, seeds and planting material; case histories of exotic pests/diseases and their status.

UNIT II: Plant protection organization in India. Acts related to registration of pesticides and transgenics. History of quarantine legislations, PQ Order 2003. Environmental Acts, Industrial registration; APEDA, Import and Export of bio-control agents.

UNIT III: Identification of pest/disease free areas; contamination of food with Toxigens and microorganisms, and their elimination; Symptomatic diagnosis and other techniques to detect pest/pathogen infestations; VHT and other safer techniques of disinfestation/salvaging of infected material.

UNIT IV: WTO regulations; non-tariff barriers; Pest Risk Analysis (PRA), good practices for pesticide laboratories; pesticide industry; Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures.

PL PATH 591  MASTER’S SEMINAR                            1+0                     

PL PATH 592  SPECIAL PROBLEM IN M.SC.             0+1

PL PATH 599  MASTER’S RESEARCH                         0+20                    

 PL PATH 601 ADVANCED MYCOLOGY                     2+1                      

Theory

UNIT I: General introduction, historical development and advances in mycology.

UNIT II: Recent taxonomic criteria, morphological, Chemical (chemotaxonomy) and Molecular.

UNIT III: Interaction between groups: Phylogeny. Conidiogenesis and sporulating structures of fungi imperfecti. Morphology and reproduction of representative plant pathogenic genera from differentgroups of fungi. Sexual reproduction.

UNIT IV: Population biology, pathogenic variability/vegetative compatibility.

UNIT V: Heterokaryosis and parasexual cycle. Sex hormones in fungi. Pleomorphism and speciation in fungi. Mechanism of nuclear inheritance. Mechanism of extra-nuclear inheritance. Biodegradation.

Practical: Study of conidiogenesis- phialides, porospores, arthospores. Study of fruit bodies in Ascomycotina. Identification of fungi up to species level. Study of hyphal anastomosis. Morphology of representative plant pathogenic genera from different groups of fungi.

 

PL PATH 602 ADVANCED VIROLOGY                  2+1                                      

Theory

UNIT I: Recent advances in plant virology, virus-vector relationship, bimodal transmission and taxonomy of vectors and viruses, Mechanism of virus transmission by vectors, vector specificity for classes of viruses, virus replication, assembly and architecture, ultrastructural changes due to virus infection, variation, mutation and virus strains.

UNIT II: Immunoglobulin structure and functions of various domains, methods of immune-diagnosis, hybridoma technology and use of monoclonal antibodies in identification of viruses and their strains, Polymerase Chain Reaction.

UNIT III: Genome organization, replication, transcription and translational strategies of pararetroviruses and gemini viruses, satellite viruses and satellite RNA, genome organization in tobamo-, poty-, bromo, cucumo, ilar, gemini and tospoviruses.

UNIT IV: Gene expression and regulation, viral promoters, molecular mechanism of host-virus interactions, virus induced gene, molecular mechanism of vector transmission, symptom expression, viroids and prions.

UNIT V: Genetic engineering with plant viruses, viral suppressors, a RNAi dynamics, resistant genes. Viruses potential as vectors, genetically engineered resistance, transgenic plants.

UNIT VI: Techniques and application of tissue culture. Origin, evolution and interrelationship with animal viruses.

Practical: Purification of virus(es), SDS-PAGE for molecular weight determination, production of polyclonal antiserum, purification of IgG and conjugate preparation, serological techniques (i) DAC-ELISA (ii) DAS -ELISA (iii) DIBA (iv) Western blots (v) (ab) 2-ELISA, vector transmission (one each with aphid, leaf hopper and whitefly), methods for collecting vectors and their maintenance, nucleic acid isolation, DOT-blot, southern hybridization, probe preparation and autoradiography, PCR application and viral genome cloning, sequencing annotation of genes.

 

PL PATH 603 ADVANCED BACTERIOLOGY                2+1                               

Theory

UNIT I: Current approaches for the characterization and identification of phytopathogenic bacteria. Ultrastructures and biology of bacteria.

UNIT II: Current trends in taxonomy of phytopathogenic procarya.

UNIT III: Role of enzyme, toxin, exopolysaccharide, polypeptide signals in disease development. Mechanism of wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) development, mechanism of soft rot (Erwinia spp.) development, mechanism of Crown gall formation (Agrobacterium tumifaciens).

UNIT IV: Host-bacterial pathogen interaction, quorum-sensing phenomenon, Type III secretion system, HR/SR reactions, R-genes, Avr-genes, hrp genes, Effector protein.

UNIT V: Molecular variability among phytopathogenic procarya and possible host defense mechanism(s). Genetic engineering for management of bacterial plant pathogens-gene silencing, RNAi technology.

UNIT VI: Epidemiology in relation to bacterial plant pathogens. Development of diagnostic kit.

UNIT VII: Beneficial prokaryotes- Endophytes, PGPR, phylloplane bacteria and their role in disease management. Endosymbionts for host defense.

Practical: Pathogenic studies and race identification; plasmid profiling of bacteria; fatty acid profiling of bacteria; RAPD profiling of bacteria and variability status; Endospore, Flagellar staining; test for secondary metabolite production, cyanides, EPS, siderophore; specific detection of phytopathogenic bacteria using species/pathovar specific primers. Basic techniques in diagnostic kit development, molecular tools to identify phytoendosymbionts

 

PL PATH 604 MOLECULAR BASIS OF HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION        2+1

 

Theory

UNIT I: Importance and role of biotechnological tools in Plant Pathology- Basic concepts and principles to study host pathogen relationship.

UNIT II: Molecular basis of host-pathogen interaction- fungi, bacteria and viruses; recognition system, signal transduction.

UNIT III: Induction of defense responses- pathogenesis related proteins, HR, reactive oxygen species, phytoalexins and systemic acquired resistance, Programmed Cell Death, Viral induced gene silencing.

UNIT IV: Molecular basis of gene-for-gene hypothesis; R-gene expression and transcription profiling, mapping and cloning of resistance genes and marker-aided selection, pyramiding of R genes. UNIT V

Biotechnology and disease management; development of disease resistance plants using genetic engineering approaches, different methods of gene transfer, biosafety issues related to GM crops.

Practical: Protein, DNA and RNA isolation, Plasmids extraction,PCR analysis, DNA and Protein electrophoresis, bacterial transformation.

 

PL PATH 605 PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF CERTIFICATION                 1+0

Theory

 

UNIT I: Introduction to certification. International scenario of certification and role of ISTA, EPPO, OECD etc. in certification and quality control.

UNIT II: Case studies of certification systems of USA and Europe. National Regulatory mechanism and certification system including seed certification, minimum seed certification standards. National status of seed health in seed certification. Methods for testing genetic identity, physical purity, germination percentage, seed health etc.

UNIT III: Fixing tolerance limits for diseases and insect pests in certification and quality control programmes. Methods used in certification of seeds, vegetative propagules and in vitro cultures. Accreditation of seed testing laboratories. Role of seed/ planting material health certification in national and international trade.

 

PL PATH 606 PLANT BIOSECURITY AND BIOSAFETY             2+0             

Theory

UNIT I: History of biosecurity, Concept of biosecurity, Components of biosecurity, Quarantine, Invasive Alien Species, Biowarfare, Emerging/resurgence of pests and diseases.

UNIT II: National Regulatory Mechanism and International Agreements/Conventions viz., Agreement on Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures/World Trade Organization (WTO), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, pest risk analysis, risk assessment models, pest information system, early warning and forecasting system, use of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) for plant biosecurity, pest/disease and epidemic management, strategies for combating risks and costs associated with agroterrorism event and its mitigation planning and integrated approach for biosecurity. Biosafety, policies and regulatory mechanism, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and its implications, Issues related to release of genetically modified crops.

 

PL PATH 691 DOCTORAL SEMINAR I                          1+0                     

 

PL PATH 692 DOCTORAL SEMINAR II                         1+0                     

 

PL PATH 693 SPECIAL PROBLEM IN PH.D.                  0+1

 

PL PATH 699 DOCTORAL RESEARCH                         0+45