Chemistry and Biochemistry


Professors/ equivalent


Awasthi, C. P.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Oberoi, C. K., Sharma, N., Sud, R. G.,

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Guleria, S., Katoch, R., Mohini, K., Singh, N.



M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Plant Biochemistry, Food Biochemistry, Molecular Biology

Core Courses                      


Biochem 501, Biochem 504, Biochem 505, Biochem 551




Biochem 501    Basic Biochemistry                                                                              3+1

Scope and importance of biochemistry in agriculture; fundamental principles governing life; structure of water; acid base concept and buffers; pH; hydrogen bonding; hydrophobic, electrostatic and Van der Wal forces; general introduction to physical techniques for determination of structure of biopolymers; fundamentals of thermodynamics applicable to biological processes; classification, structures and functions of amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids; structure and biological function of vitamins; enzymes; classification and mechanism of action - regulation, factors affecting enzyme action, concept of oxidation-reduction in  biological systems; bioenergetics, biomembranes and oxidative phosphorylation; metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates; photosynthesis and respiration, DNA replication, transcription and translation; recombinant DNA technology.


Preparation of buffers; nitrogen estimation by different methods; separation of amino acids by TLC; separation of proteins on PAGE; enzyme assay; estimation of reducing and non-reducing sugars; estimation of oil, iodine value, saponification value and acid value; fatty acid composition by GLC; isolation and quantification of nucleic acids; estimation of ascorbic acid; estimation of riboflavin and thiamine.


Biochem 502    Plant Biochemistry                                                                              3+0

Plant cell organelles and their separation; structure and function of cell organelles; photosynthetic pigments in relation to their functions; photosynthesis - generation of NADPH and ATP; C3, C4 and CAM pathway and their regulation; photorespiration; sucrose-starch interconversions; biosynthesis of structural carbohydrates, proteins and lipids; biochemistry of nitrogen fixation and nitrate assimilation, sulphate reduction and incorporation of sulphur into amino acids; seed germination and development; biochemistry of fruit ripening; phytohormones and their mode of action; signal transduction; significance of secondary metabolites - cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, termpenoids, alkaloids; plant defense system.


Biochem 503    Human Biochemistry                                                                           3+0

Biochemistry of digestion and absorption; detoxification; respiration; biochemistry of specialized tissues, blood and other body fluids; endocrine glands; muscle contraction, electrolytes and acid base balance; nutritional and metabolic aspects of major nutrients; comparative nutrition of man, monogastric animals and ruminants; components of immune system and their role in defense mechanism.


Biochem 504    Enzymology                                                                                         3+1

Introduction and historical perspective; classification and nomenclature; isolation and purification of enzymes; cofactors - structures and biological functions; theory of enzymatic catalysis, specificity, concept of active site and enzyme substrate complex, factors associated with catalytic efficiency, enzymatic kinetics; methods to determine Km and Vmax with their merits and demerits; Briggs-Haldane steady state approach, King - Altman patterns; effect of different factors  affecting enzyme activities; transition state approach, transition state theory; Arrhenius equation; determination of energy of activation; optimum temperature and thermal stability of enzyme; concepts of inhibition of enzyme catalyzed reactions, allosteric enzymes; basic concept, significance, positive and negative effectors, heterotopic and homotropic effects; determination of binding sites, isozymes, multienzyme complexes and systems, bio-functional enzymes; immobilized enzymes; relative practical and economic advantages for industrial uses; effect of partition on kinetics and performance with particular emphasis on charge and hydrophobicity immobilized enzyme systems; ribozyme.


Isolation of soluble protein and their characterization; isolation and purification of enzymes; determination of activity and specific activity of an enzyme; determination of Km and Vmax; enzyme kinetics; enzyme inhibitors.


Biochem 505    Intermediary Metabolism                                                                    3+0

The living cell: a unique chemical system; experimental approaches to study metabolism, transport mechanisms, thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanism, active and passive transport; signal transduction; carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, HMP pathway, glyoxalate pathway, glycogen synthesis and its regulation, bioenergetics, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation and its regulation; lipid metabolism and its regulation; amino acid metabolism; general reactions, degradation and biosynthesis, sulphur metabolism; metabolism of nucleic acids; degradation and biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines; regulation and integration of metabolic pathways.


Biochem 511    Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism                                                           2+1

Biochemistry of nitrogen cycle; biological nitrogen fixation; structure, function and regulation of nitrogenase; structure, function and regulation of nif genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae; biochemical basis of legume-Rhizobium symbiosis; genes involved in symbiosis; different types of hydrogenases and role of uptake hydrogenase in N2-fixation; chemoautotrophy in rhizobia; biochemistry of ferredoxin and other non-heme iron proteins, biochemistry of nitrate assimilation and mechanism of its regulation; GS / GOGAT and GDH pathway; ureides and amides as nitrogen transport compounds; biochemistry of de-nitrification process and phosphorylation in denitrifying bacteria; nitrification process and path of carbon assimilation in nitrifying bacteria.


Estimation of nitrite content, estimation of protein by Lowry's method; estimation of nitrate content by hydrazine sulphate reduction method; in vivo assay of nitrate reductase activity; in vitro assay of nitrate reductase activity; in vitro assay of nitrite reductase activity; in vitro assay of glutamine synthetase activity; in vitro assay of glutamate synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase activity; estimation of ureides and amides; assay of nitrogenase activity by acetylene reduction method; estimation of hydrogen evolution by legume nodules.


Biochem 512    Biochemistry of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses                                        3+0

Plant-pathogen interaction and disease development; molecular mechanisms of fungal and bacterial infection in plants; changes in metabolism, cell wall composition and vascular transport in diseased plants; plant defense response, anti-microbial molecules; genes for resistance, hypersensitive response and cell death; systemic and acquired resistance; plant viruses, host-virus interactions, disease induction, virus movement, and host range determination; viroids, pathogen-derived resistance; biochemical basis of abiotic  stresses - osmotic (drought, salinity), temperature, heavy metals, air and water pollutants; interaction between biotic and abiotic stresses; stress adoption; molecular strategies for imparting tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses.


Biochem 513    Biomembranes                                                                                    2+0 

Concept of biomembranes and their classification based on cellular organelles; physico-chemical properties of different biological and artificial membranes, cell surface receptors and antigen, membrane biogenesis and differentiation; membrane components - lipids, their distribution and organization; protein, intrinsic and extrinsic, their arrangement; carbohydrates in membranes and their function, various membrane movements; transport across membrane and energy transduction, role of membrane in cellular metabolism, cell recognition and cell-to-cell interaction; signal transduction, recent trends in membrane research.


Biochem 521    Biochemistry of Food Grains, Fruits and Vegetables                           2+1

Fundamentals of human nutrition, concept of balanced diet; disorders of malnutrition; assessment of nutritional status; biochemical composition and food value of various food grains (cereals, pulses, oilseeds), fruits and vegetables; biochemistry of food spoilage, role of lipase and lipoxygenase; antinutritional factors; biochemical aspects of post-harvest technology such as storage and preservation; fundamentals of food processing; biochemical basis of nutritional quality improvement of food grains, vegetables and fruits; factors affecting nutritive value of food grains, fruits and vegetables.


Estimation of protein content; limiting amino acids, starch; lipids / oil content; estimation of phenolics in food grains; phytates and oxalates in leafy vegetables; estimation of carotenoids; estimation of dietary fibre; trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities; estimation of vitamin C; reducing and non-reducing sugars in fruits.


Biochem 531    Fundamentals of Molecular Biology                                                    3+2

Historical development of molecular biology; nucleic acids as genetic material, chemistry and structure of DNA and RNA; biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation; genome organisation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; chromatin structure and function; DNA replication, DNA polymerases, topoisomerases, DNA ligase; reverse transcriptase; repetitive and non-repetitive DNA, satellite DNA; transcription process, RNA editing, RNA processing; molecular mechanism of regulation of lac operon, attenuation of trp operon; RNA replicase; ribosome: structure and function, organisation of ribosomal proteins and RNA genes, genetic code; aminoacyl tRNA synthetase; inhibitors of replication, transcription and translation; translation and post-translation modifications; nucleases and restriction enzymes; DNA sequencing; recombinant DNA technology, vectors, isolation of genes, recombinant vector, selection of recombinants; PCR; general features of replication, transcription, site directed mutagenesis and translation in eukaryotes.


Estimation of DNA and RNA; isolation of plasmids, isolation of genomic DNA from crop plants; isolation of total RNA; agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA; restriction analysis of DNA; radiolabelling of DNA; Southern blotting and hybridization.


Biochem 541    Immunochemistry                                                                                2+0

History and scope of immunology; components of immune system; immunoglobulins chemistry, structure and functions; antigens, haptens and complement system; biochemistry and interactions of antigens, antibody and lymphocytes; molecular organisation of immunoglobulins and classes of antibodies, antibody diversity; immuno-regulation; vaccines; monoclonal antibodies and their uses; current immunological techniques - ELISA, radioimmunoassay.


Biochem 551    Techniques in Biochemistry                                                               1+ 3

pH and buffers; preparation and purification of cell organelles; spectrophotometry (UV, visible, infra-red) and spectrofluorometry; ultracentrifugation; chromatographic techniques - basics, ion exchange, gel filtration and affinity chromatography, GLC and HPLC; electrophoretic techniques for protein and nucleic acid separation - PAGE, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing; ELISA, liquid scintillation counting, use of radioisotopes in biochemistry including autoradiography and safety aspects; mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance; X-ray crystallography; neutron scattering technique.


pH and preparation of buffers; soluble protein estimation; fractionation of cell organelles; estimation of sugars by colorimetric methods; extraction of lipids and their separation on TLC; estimation of iodine value and saponification value; separation of amino acids by TLC; analysis of N-terminal amino acids; separation of proteins and isozyme analysis by PAGE; molecular weight determination by SDS-PAGE; enzyme purification (Amylase / Peroxidase / Lysozyme); acetone powder, ammonium sulfate fractionation; ion exchange / gel chromatography; enzyme kinetics; GLC, HPLC; DNA isolation and agarose gel electrophoresis; polysome isolation by sucrose density gradient centrifugation; flourimetric estimation of vitamins.


Biochem 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                    1+0

Biochem 592    Special  Problem in M. Sc.                                                                  0+1

Biochem 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                                  1-18     




Chem 501    Essentials of Organic Chemistry                                                               3+0

An elementary treatment of physical concepts in organic chemistry; bond length, bond angle, bond energy, hybridization, electronegativity and the study of periodic table; dipole moment, inductive, electromeric, mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; aromaticity and aromatic substitution; stereochemistry; free radical substitution; nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution; elimination and addition reactions; energy of activation and transition state; role of solvent in reaction mechanisms; orbital symmetry and the chemical reactions, pericyclic reactions ; chemistry of natural products with special reference to carbohydrates, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids.


Chem 502    Chemistry of Natural Products                                                                  2+1

Methods of isolation and purification of natural products; classification and configuration of sugars; ring structure of glucose, di, oligo and polysaccharides; conformation of carbohydrates; isolation, determination of structure; stereochemistry and synthesis of typical members of steroids - cholesterol, bile acids, testosterone, estrone and cortisone, alkaloids -  nicotine, papaverine, morphine, strychnine; acticine; terpenoids - mono, sesqui and diterpenoids; structure, synthesis and properties of amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids.


Identification of compounds of mixtures in simple organic compounds.


Chem 503    Chemistry of  Pesticides                                                                           2+1

Introduction; classification of pesticides; chemistry of organochlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus insecticides, carbamate insecticides, synthetic pyrothmides, different fungicides and herbicides; mode of action of important insecticides; metabolism of important insecticides; pesticides residues, formulations and their characterization.


Thin layer chromatography; preparation of WDP, DWT and EC formulations of different insecticides and analysis for active ingredients; residue analysis of different insecticides and gas liquid chromatography.


Chem 511    Modern Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry                                                   2+0

Wave mechanical model of atom; atomic and molecular orbitals; molecular orbital theory of simple diatomic molecules - linear combination of atomic orbitals; properties of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, N, O, S, transition elements), their importance and uses in relation to agriculture and biochemistry; crystal field theory, complexes of transition elements and their uses; complexes of Group I and II elements and their functions in bio-system.


Chem 512    Analytical Chemistry                                                                                2+1

Role of analytical chemistry; classification of analytical methods (volumetric, gravimetric, colorimetric, spectrophotometric, flame photometric, potentiometric, conductometric and solvent extraction techniques); basic principles of analytical methods.


Advantages of the use of equivalent system; preparation of standard solutions; sources of errors and precautions in quantitative estimations; spectroscopic estimations in solutions.


Chem 521    Electronic Spectroscopy                                                                           1+1

Elelctromagnetic radiation; interaction of electromagnetic radiations with matter - absorption and emission; basic principles of spectrophotometry; electronic transitions; solvent effect; empirical rules of electronic transitions; ultra violet spectra of dienes; conjugated polyenes; carbonyl and aromatic compounds.


Use of colorimeters and UV-visible spectrophotometer; verification of Beer's law; qualitative and quantitative estimations.



Professors/ equivalent


Sharma, C. R.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Kanwar, S. S.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Gupta, M. K., Punj, V.




M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Agricultural Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology,

Food and Dairy Microbiology, Microbial Biotechnology

Core Courses                      


Micro 501, Micro 502, Micro 503, Micro 504, Micro 505



Micro 501    General Microbiology                                                                               2+1

Historical developments in microbiology; scope and importance; classification of microorganisms; microscopy; structure and function of microbial cells; nutrition and metabolism; microbial growth; cultivation of microorganisms; pure culture techniques; genetic recombination in microorganisms; microorganisms and geochemical changes; application of microorganisms in industry and agriculture; interactions among microorganisms and host; immunology; antigens, antibodies and their reactions.


Microscopy; staining; sterilization; media preparation; methods of isolation, purification and maintenance of microbial cultures; enumeration of microorganisms; morphological, biochemical and serological tests for identification of microbial cultures; antibiotic resistance and sensitivity assay; tests for coliforms.


Micro 502    Microbial Taxonomy                                                                                 2+1

Major characteristics used in taxonomy; classification systems; numerical taxonomy, bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy; kingdoms of organisms; bacteria - gram positive -cocci, rods, spore formers, non spore formers and actinomycetes; gram negative - aerobic rods and cocci, facultative anaerobic rods, anaerobic rods, anaerobic cocci, sulphur reducing bacteria, mycoplasmas, rickettsias, chlamydia and archaebacteria; fungi - classification, structure, characteristics of fungi, slime molds and water molds;  algae - classification, structure and characteristics of algae; protozoa morphology, encystment and excystment and various representative types; methods of classification of viruses.


Examination of cell wall and structure; endospores; flagellar structure and asexual/sexual spores; internal structures of bacteria; fungal type - sclerotia morphology and structure of  yeasts; morphological differentiation of actinomycetes; observation of different morphological structures of algae and protozoa , internal organelles examination;  cultural and biochemical characters of bacteria. 


Micro 503    Microbial Physiology and Metabolisms                                                    2+1

Structure and function of various cellular components of microorganisms; cell membrane permeability and transport of nutrients; microbial growth, effect of physical and chemical agents on growth; death in term of mathematical models; batch, continuous and synchronous growth; sporulation; energy yielding metabolic pathways; biosynthesis and polymerization; enzymes and regulation of their activity and synthesis.


Growth of microorganisms utilizing various carbon and nitrogen sources, measurement of growth and cell size; factors affecting growth; aerobic and anaerobic respiration; cellular composition; sporulation and spore germination; measurement of macromolecules; induction and repression of enzyme synthesis.


Micro 504    Microbial Genetics                                                                                    2+1

Nature and function of genetic material in microorganisms; adaptation and mutation; types of mutations and mutation induction; molecular basis of mutation; exchange of genetic material in microorganisms - transformation, conjugation and transduction, cell fusion; extra chromosomal genetic elements - plasmids, transposons and insertion elements ; genetic organization and fine structure analysis of phage genome; genetic mapping; recombinant DNA technology; genetic improvement of industrially important microorganisms.


Induction of mutation in bacteria through physical, chemical and biological agents and studying the mutation rate; mutation test, replica plating techniques; isolation of auxotrophic mutants; demonstration of extra chromosomal genetic elements; experiments on transformation, transduction and conjugation; observation of genetic variation in yeasts.


Micro 505    Techniques in Microbiology                                                                     0+2

Microscopy and its application; preparation and sterilization of culture media and glassware; isolation and characterization of microorganisms; measurement, maintenance and preservation of microbial cultures; growth parameters; fluctuation test and replica plating techniques; application of lypholization, spectrophotometry, centrifugation, GLC, HPLC, radio isotopes, respirometry, chromatography, electrophoresis, sonication, cell disruption, etc.; antibiotic sensitivity test; precipitation, agglutination and immunodiffusion tests; demonstration of bacteriophage - titre, burst size and single step growth experiment.


Micro 511    Soil Microbiology                                                                                     2+1 

Introduction and historical development of soil microbiology; nature and classification of soil microorganisms; growth, nutrition and physiology; methods of studying soil microorganisms; organic matter decomposition - humus formation, mineralization and transformation of nutrients; biological nitrogen fixation; pesticide degradation; ecological interrelationships; production and  use of bio-fertilizers and their associated problems.


Isolation, characterization and enumeration of soil microorganisms; microbial biomass determination; degradation of organic matter nitrogen mineralization; nitrogen fixation; nitrogenase assay; phosphate solubilization and sulphur oxidation; soil enzymes


Micro 512    Microbial Management of Organic Wastes                                               2+1

Organic wastes in the biosphere - tropical, temperate and forest ecosystems; composition, source and quantum of wastes; qualitative nature of  wastes; decomposition of the organic materials - processes of decomposition, aerobic and anaerobic degradation, degradation of simple carbon compounds, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, complex substances, organisms; enzymes and by-products; microbiology of anaerobic digestion, acetogenic and methonogenic microbes; mechanism of  composting,  sewage, solid and liquid wastes,  sewage treatments, oxidation ponds, activated sludge, etc., trickling filters, recycling of sewage water  and related problems;  agro-industrial wastes, microbial  conversion;  useful products and organisms involved in degradation; microbial degradation of pesticides.


Quantitative and qualitative enumeration of microorganisms in organic wastes; degradation of cellulose and other carbon compounds; CO2 evolution; methane generation and methanogenesis succession of microorganisms in composting; microbial load in sewage, BOD and COD determination; visit to sewage treatment plant; degradation of industrial wastes; use of wastes for SCP production.


Micro 513    Biofertilizers                                                                                             2+1

Introduction; microorganisms as biofertilizers, nitrogen fixers, phosphate solubilizing and mobilizing, microorganisms as organic matter decomposers; principles of mass production of bio-fertilizers; preparation and use of inoculants, quality control and BIS standards; problems and prospectus.


Isolation, characterization and mass production of Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, organic matter decomposer, phosphate solubilizers and mobilizers.


Micro 514    Microbial Control of Crop Pests and Diseases                                          1+1

Microflora associated with the healthy and diseased insects;  parasitism and symbiosis, symptomology and diagnosis of microbial diseases of  insects;   endo- and ecto-toxins production   by Bacillus thuringiensis.  B. popillae and their mode of action;   fungal pathogens of insects;  control of plant root pathogens; control of aerial plant pathogens; prophylaxis, preinoculation, and immunization;  microorganisms as healing agents in plants; mass production techniques of microbial biocontrol agents.


Isolation and identification of the external and internal microflora of insects; microbiological examination of diseased insects and isolation of the insect pathogens; assessing the lethal dose of the pathogens; demonstration of Kochís postulates;  mass multiplication of insect pathogens; mass production and application methods of bio-control agents.


Micro 521    Microbial Ecology                                                                                     2+1

An introduction to microbial ecology; ecological principles and their influence on the incidence, nature, type and distribution of microbial population; microbiological associations and interactions in different ecosystems; microbial successions and adaptations; assessment of microbial stresses and adaptation; energy turnover; energy flow; food chain; productivity; biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem management.


Isolation and characterization of microorganisms from different ecological environments; effects of various environmental factors on population of microorganisms; growth pattern of different microorganisms, isolation of microorganisms producing antimetabolites; study of interrelationship  between microorganisms,  plants and animals.


Micro 522    Environmental Microbiology                                                                     2+1

Distribution of microorganisms in different eco-systems and their involvement in environmental quality; life under environmental stresses; role of microorganisms in environmental pollution and its control; microbes as tools in environmental quality; microbiology of soil, air, water, sludge, sewage, rumen, etc.;  treatment of solids and liquid wastes; microbiological control of insects, pests and pathogens; microorganisms and geochemical changes; biotransformation and biodegradation.


Isolation and characterization of microflora from polluted environments; studies of thermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles, etc.; microbiological analysis of water, waste water , sewage and sludge, industrial  effluents, rumen,  biogas plant slurry, composting systems; measurement of BOD, COD and total solids, etc.


Micro 531    Food Microbiology                                                                                    2+1

Introduction to food microbiology; microbes in raw and processed foods; food spoilage and preservation; factors affecting microbial activity in foods; antimicrobial substances in foods; food poisoning and food infections; microbial toxins; bioassay methods; methods of food preservation; fermented food products; microbes as food; recycling and waste disposal from food industries; legislation  and bacteriological standards for different foods.


Procedures for food sampling; microbiological examination of different foods; effect of physical and chemical methods of food preservation on microbial growth; testing of antimicrobial agents for food preservation; enumeration and characterization of various food poisoning microorganisms; microbiological bioassay; scanning and ecological calculation of canning constants; bacteriological examination of water; BOD and COD of effluents.


Micro 532    Dairy Microbiology                                                                                   2+1

Introduction to dairy microbiology; microbiology of milk; characterization and classification of microorganisms present in milk and milk products; diseases transmitted through milk and dairy products; starter cultures in dairy products, maintenance, propagation and use; fermented milk products, microbial and  technological processes; dairy plant sanitization; recycling and waste disposal; utilization of by-products; legislation and bacteriological standards for milk and milk products.


Isolation and characterization of milk microorganisms; microbiological successions in milk and dairy products; effect of physical and chemical agents on the shelf life of milk and milk products; preservation action of salt, sugar and acids; bacteriological examination of milk and milk products; dye reduction tests; preparation of lactic starter cultures and their use; microbiological examination of water.


Micro 541    Industrial Microbiology                                                                             2+1

Historical development of industrial microbiology; isolation, characterization, maintenance and improvement of industrially important microorganisms, substrates for industrial fermentation; concepts of industrial fermentation-batch and continuous; single cell protein; microbial production and recovery of vinegar, alcohol, undistilled and distilled liquors, organic acids, enzymes, vitamins, biofertilizers, bio-insecticides etc. biosynthesis of antibiotics; immobilized biocatalysts Ė propagation and industrial use, biosensor; microbial assay;  effluent treatment.


Isolation and screening industrially useful microorganisms and their growth characteristics; preparation of inoculum and fermentation media; production of alcohol, organic acids, amino acids, enzymes and antibiotics; immobilization techniques and their use; bio assay techniques.


Micro 542    Microbial Biotechnology                                                                           2+1

Recent concepts and developments in microbial biotechnology; microbial assay; bioreactors; biosensors; microorganisms used in biotechnology; genetic improvement of microorganisms; use of microorganisms in various technological processes - alcohols, organic acids, organic solvents, antibiotics, vitamins, malting, brewing; yeast production, enzyme production, steroids transformation, microbial insecticides, pro-biotics, etc.; immobilized biocatalysts - enzyme, whole cell; batch and continuous cultures; microbial cultures of economic importance - production, use, technical and economic feasibility.  


Studies of batch, semi-continuous, and continuous fermentors/digestors and their operating parameters; production of alcohol, citric acid, malting and brewing; studies on bakerís yeast, single cell protein, microbial cultures, etc; bioassay techniques; quality control parameters.


Micro 551    Introduction to Human Microbial Pathogens                                            2+1

Introduction; morphology, physiology and identification of microorganisms of clinical significance; sterilization and disinfection; infection, immunity and immunological techniques; normal flora of human body; common diseases in human beings   caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi.


Microbiological processing of clinical samples; identification and characterization of causative microorganisms; antibiotics sensitivity tests; techniques involved in antigen antibody reaction.


Micro 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                         1+0

Micro 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                        0+1

Micro 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                                      1-18


 Plant Physiology


Professors/ equivalent


Bansal, G. L.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Gupta, C. S, Kaushal, S. K., Singh, K. P.


Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Rana, U., Upadhayay, R. G.



M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Growth and Development, Mineral Nutrition, Stress Physiology

Core Courses                      



Pl Physiol 501, Pl Physiol 502, Pl Physiol 503, Pl Physiol 504



Pl Physiol 501    Cellular Physiology and Plant Water Relations                                 2+1

Cell organelles and their physiological functions; structure and functions of cell wall and cell membrane; water - its properties and functions in plants; water potential and its role in agriculture; mechanism of water uptake by roots and its translocation; physical phenomena, imbibition plasmolysis, osmosis; water loss from plants, energy balance, solar energy input, energy dissipation at crop canopy level, evapotranspiration; transpiration, factors influencing transpiration rate; stomata: structure, function, mechanism of stomatal movement, antitranspirants; physiology of water stress in plants, influence of water stress at cell, organ, plant and canopy levels, indices for assessment of drought resistance.


Measurement of plant water status; relative water content, water saturation deficits, Chardakovís test; theory and principles of pressure bomb, hydraulic jack; measurement of transpiration rate, stomatal physiology, ABA and stomatal closing.


Pl Physiol 502    Inorganic Nutrition: Physiological and Molecular Aspects                 2+1    

The role of mineral nutrients in plant metabolism; essential elements, classification based on function of elements in plants; uptake of mineral elements in plants, mechanisms of uptake, translocation of minerals in plants, physiological and metabolic functions of mineral elements, critical levels, nutrient deficiency and toxicity, foliar nutrition, hydroponics and aeroponics; nitrogen metabolism; inorganic nitrogen species (N2, NO3, NH3) and their reduction to amino acids, protein synthesis and nucleic acids; concept of nutrient use efficiency; mineral nutrition under adverse soil situations, drought, salinity acidity etc. heavy metal toxicity and concept of phytoremediation; molecular aspects, uptake and transport; role of transporter genes; genetics of nutrient uptake, identification and transfer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies, etc.


Growing plants in sand culture; hydroponic culture, demonstration of deficiency and toxicity symptoms of nutrients, preparation of synthetic nutrient solutions; demonstration of energy requirement for ion uptake; differential uptake of ions, tissue analysis for nutrients.


Pl Physiol 503    Plant Growth, Development and Regulators                                     2+1

The process, phases and dynamics of growth; growth measurement and analysis; growth and differentiation; reproductive growth; external and internal factors affecting growth, growth correlation, interrelations between growth and differentiation; seed physiology; hormonal concept of growth and differentiation, plant growth hormones and new growth regulators; biosynthesis, their metabolism and physiological role; mechanisms of action; synthetic growth regulators, growth retardants, herbicides, allelochemicals and their significance in agriculture; apical dominance, senescence, fruit growth, abscission; photomorphogenesis; phytochrome, cryptochrome, photoperiodism and vernalization.


Growth measurement in different types of plants; bioassay, auxins effect on abscission, apical dominance, gibberellins bioassay, GA3 effect on germination of dormant seeds; cytokinin bioassay - effect on apical dominance and senescence; ABA bioassay; ABA effect on stomatal movement; ethylene bioassay, effect on breaking dormancy.


Pl Physiol 504    Plant Metabolism and Productivity: Physiological & Molecular aspects   2+1

Plant pigments; photosynthesis, translocation and the respiration as key processes regulating carbon metabolism and plant growth; photochemical process, chloroplast structure, photochemical reactions, CO2 reduction in Calvin cycle, supplementary pathway of C fixation in C4 and CAM plants and its significance; RUBISCO assembly and regulation; chloroplast genome organization, expression and regulation of plastid genes, antisense and gene expression studies; photorespiration and its relevance; effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates; photosynthesis and productivity; chlorophyll fluorescence; mitochondrial respiration, growth and maintenance respiration, cyanide resistant respiration and its significance; lipid metabolism.


Separation and quantification of chlorophylls, measurement of rate of photosynthesis, O2 evolution during photosynthesis; Warburgís and oxygen electrode measurements, measurement of gas exchange parameters, conductances, measurement of radiation, light use efficiency; respiration rates.


Pl Physiol 505       Experimental Techniques in Plant Physiology                                0+2

Determination of energy utilization of crop plants, growth structure analysis, radiation measurements and interception; photoperiodic responses, quantification of photosensitive nature of a genotype; hydroponics and culture; quantification of hormone, immunoassay, physico-chemical methods; WUE; determination of water use efficiency by gravimetric approach; isotopes, use in physiological investigations (photosynthesis/protein synthesis); gas exchange technique, measurement of photosynthetic rates and dark respiration; protein purification and moisture, temperature stress, quantification of the stress levels; molecular aspects of stress response, stress responsive proteins, their expression, western and northern analysis; stress measurement parameters (membrane integrity, chlorophyll stability index, osmolyte quantification, osmotic adjustment, TTC, etc); quantification of plant constituents; specific instruments to study different physiological processes and growth measurement (e.g. IRGA, plant canopy analyzer, pressure chamber, seed germinator, porometer, respirometer, line quantum sensor, spectroradiometer, plant  pscychrometry); tissue culture technique.


Pl Physiol 511    Crop Physiology                                                                                2+0

Role of crop physiology in different branches of agriculture; crop physiological processes influencing crop growth and productivity; crop growth models describing yield (Duncan/Passioura); Duncanís model; phenology, crop productivity, growth factors related to biomass - concept of crop growth rates, canopy photosynthesis (leaf area and net assimilation rates as determining factors); light interception as a major function of leaf area, LAI, LAD, canopy architecture, light extinction coefficient; NAR, CGR, variation in photosynthetic rates within and between the species; Passiouraís model; interrelation between total transpiration- WUE- plant growth, role of VPD; biomass and yield relations, partitioning of photosynthates at different growth stages of crop, harvest index, yield and yield structure analysis; concept of source-sink and productivity; environmental factors determining crop growth, effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on duration of growth stages; ideotype concept, selection indices for improving crop productivity.


Pl Physiol 512    Seed Physiology                                                                                2+1

Structure of seeds and their storage resources; seed developmental patterns and source of assimilates for seed development; pathway of movement of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots; chemical compositions of seeds; storage of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in seeds; hydration of seeds in physiological processes; seed respiration, mitochondrial, activity; mobilization of stored resource in seeds, utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axes; gibberellin and amylase and other hydrolytic activity; seed maturation phase and desiccation damage; role of LEA proteins; seed viability;  means to prolong seed viability; seed dormancy, types and regulation; means to overcome seed dormancy.


Determination of seed storage proteins sink drawing, alpha- amylase activity in germinating seeds; role of GA in inducing amylase activity; role of embryo in GA induced  amylase activity; protease and lipase activity in germinating seeds; seed viability test and accelerated ageing test; seed hardening/osmotic priming of seeds; estimation of seed respiration rates; seed viability losses.


Pl Physiol 513    Physiological Aspects of Field Crops                                                 2+0

Crop physiology of rice, wheat, maize, oilseed and pulse crops, their phenological developments; crop production constraints and strategies for increasing crop productivity in these crops; characteristics of old and new plant ideotypes; source sink relationships and productivity; role of CO2 enrichment in crop growth and development, photoperiodism, vernalization and themophotoperiodisms.


Pl Physiol 514    Physiology of Flowering and Reproduction                                       2+0

Monocarpic and perennial life habits, flowering phenomenon; effect of plant age, juvenility, transition to flowering; flowering nature and classification of plants; photoperiodic responses and the mechanisms in short and long day plants; theories related to flowering; endogenous substances and flowering; growth regulators and flowering; gene expression in flowering; control of flowering, thermoperiodism, photo and thermoperiod interactions; vernalization, mechanism and practical use of the process; seed and fruit abortion and means to overcome it; physiological basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration; physiology of heterosis.


Pl Physiol 521    Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants                                                    2+0

Response of plants to abiotic stresses; abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity; basic principles of a crop improvement programme under stress, interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses; injury and mechanisms of resistance to water, radiation, temperature, salt, saline, alkaline and pollution stress; experimental measures for increased resistance to environmental stresses;molecular responses to water deficit; stress perception, expression of regulatory and functional gene and significance of gene products; stress and hormones, ABA as a signaling molecule, oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS); crucial role of membrane lipids; frost and chilling stress; effects on physiological processes.


Pl Physiol 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                  1+0

Pl Physiol 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                 0+1

Pl Physiol 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                               1-18


 Statistics, Mathematics and Physics


Professors/ equivalent


Gupta, R.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Ram Lal, Singh, K., Singh, S.


Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Kalia, V., Rana, R., Sharma, R. C., Sharma, K., Thakur, S.,



Minor and Supporting





Stat 501    Statistical Methods                                                                                      3+1

Elementary ideas of probability; rules of addition and multiplication; standard theoretical probability distributions-binomial, poisson and normal; mean and standard error of statistics; estimation of parameters and their properties, confidence intervals; tests of significance -normal deviate, t, F and Chi-square tests; approximate large sample tests; scatter diagram, simple correlation and regression, least squares technique, partial and multiple regression and correlation; non-linear regression-polynomial, exponential and logarithmic.


Fitting of binomial, poisson and normal distributions; application of Z, t, F and Chi-Square tests in a given data; computation and test of simple, partial and multiple correlation and regression coefficients; fitting of exponential and logarithmic functions.


Stat 511    Experimental Designs                                                                                 2+1

Uniformity trials and their use in choice of plots and blocks, their shape and size; analysis of variance and interpretation of data; repeated latin square design; factorial experiments and interpretation of simple effect, main effect and interactions; concepts of confounding in 2n and 3n series and their constructions; split and strip plot experiments; progeny row trials; missing plot techniques; covariance analysis in simple randomized block and latin square; idea about transformation of data.


Analysis of missing plot data in RBD and LSD; analysis of repeated latin square, simple factorial experiments, split plot and strip plot designs; construction and analysis of total and partially confounded 2n and 3n series of experiments; analysis of data with covariance technique.


Stat 512   Elements of Sampling Theory                                                                      2+1

Sampling from a finite population; simple random sampling; stratified; systematic; multistage and multiphase sampling; double sampling; sampling and non-sampling errors; preparation of questionnaire; ratio and regression method of estimation.


Drawing of samples and analysis of simple random, stratified, systematic, two stage, two phase sampling; computation of ratio and regression estimators and their standard errors.


Stat 513    Biostatistics                                                                                                 2+1

Reproduction and mortality rates; their estimation; application of poisson, negative binomial, logistic, log-normal and Gompertz distributions to population studies; indirect assay based on quantal response-probit; logit and angular transformations; estimation of potency and fiducial limits in direct assay; probit technique-analysis of data from indirect assays with quantal responses.


Estimation of reproduction and mortality rates from the data; study of quantal response and estimation of potency and fiducial limits from the data; analysis of data with probit technique.


Stat 514   Statistics in Economics                                                                                 2+1

Time series analysis-decomposition of time series into trend, seasonal variation and business cycle; estimation of various components; forecasting methods; elements of periodogram analysis; analysis of economic data relating to production, consumption, supply and demand; index numbers and their importance, methods of construction of index number of prices and production.


Analysis of time series; estimation of demand curve for market data; construction of different index numbers.


Stat 515    Statistics in Genetics                                                                                   2+1

Probability as applied to genetic systems; concept of gene and genotypic frequencies; forces causing change in gene frequency; testing of genetic hypothesis; polygenic systems and inheritance of quantitative characters; continuous variation and its partitioning into genetic and environmental components; heritability and repeatability; selection for heritability and repeatability; selection for quantitative characters; uses and application of Chi square in genetic problems; detection and estimation of linkage from back cross and F2 data; progeny-row trials.


Testing of genetic hypothesis and partitioning of variation in to genetic and environment components; computation of heritability, repeatability and selection index; detection and estimation of linkage.


Stat 521*    Mathematical Statistics                                                                              3+0

Random variables and their distributions; mathematical expectation and its laws; characteristics and moment generating functions; Chebychovís and Kolmogrovís inequalities; stochastic convergence central limit theorems; important probability distributions; exact sampling distributions; bivariate probability distributions; sampling distribution of correlation and regression coefficients.


Stat 522*    Sampling Techniques I                                                                              2+0

Sampling from finite population; sampling with and without replacement and with equal selection probabilities; stratified selection; sytematic sampling; ratio and regression estimates.


Stat 523*    Sampling Techniques II                                                                             2+0

Cluster sampling; multistage sampling; PPS selection without replacement; double sampling and multiphase sampling; inverse sampling; non-sampling errors and their evaluation; designs of large sample surveys in agriculture and forestry.


Stat 524*    Statistical Inference                                                                                   2+0

Two kinds of error in testing hypothesis, uniformly most powerful tests; Neyman Pearsonís lemma, derivation of t and F tests for normal populations, likelihood ratio test, tests of hypothesis in the case of monotonic likelihood ratios, unbiased and similar tests; consistent and efficient estimates, confidence interval, sufficient statistics, unbiased estimates; Crammer-Raoís theorem; maximum likelihood estimates, sequential probability ratio test, O.C. and ASN functions, Steinís two sample procedure Ė admissibility of tests and estimates; minimum estimates; loss function and risk functions.


Stat 525*    Linear Model and Regression Analysis                                                      2+0

Generalized inverse of matrices; theorems on distribution of quadratic forms; Gauss-Markoff theorem-method of least square, concept of estimability, criterion of estimability; special cases-one and two-way classifications (including disproportionate cell frequencies and interaction), Aitkenís model; estimation of parameters under restrictions; interval estimation and tests of hypothesis in linear models; analysis of co-variance; variance components models-estimation of variance components; mixed models; study of linear regression model- statistical inference in linear regression, maximum likelihood and least square estimation, bias and precision of the regression estimates; two and three stage least square method of estimation.


* For Ph. D. Students


Stat 591    Seminar                                                                                                      1+0





Math 501    Mathematics                                                                                              3+0

Functions, limit and continuity, differentiation, partial differentiation; maxima and minima for one or more than one independent variables; integration; differential equations and their application in agricultural economics; introduction to matrices; special type of matrices; determinants; addition and subtraction of matrices; product of two matrices; transpose and conjugate of a matrix; partitioning of matrices; rank of a matrix; rank of a product; solving equations by use of matrices; characteristic roots and vectors; applications in agricultural economics; difference equations, linear difference equations and their solutions, non-homogenous difference equations, applications of difference equations in economics.


Computer Science



Comp 501    Computer Programming - FORTRAN                                                        2+1

Flow charts; application and system software; programming concepts; high level language and its suitability for processing environments; FORTRAN language - data types; expression and control structures; input and output statements; arrays; subprograms- subroutines and functions, file handling.


Developing and executing FORTRAN programs with special reference to statistical problems.


Comp 502    Computer Programming in C                                                                   2+1

Flow charts; application and system software; programming concepts; high level language and its suitability for processing environments; C language - data types; expression and control structures; input and output statements; device control statements; arrays; subprograms - subroutines and functions; file handling.


Development and execution of C programs with special reference to statistical problems.


Comp 511    Applications of Information Technology                                                  1+2

Introduction to operating systems; interface, file handling, protection and security, single user and multiple user systems; introduction to word processing, spreadsheets and presentations; introduction to Internet, web browsing and e-mail. 


Word processing using MS Word, solution of simple statistical problems using MS Excel and designing slides for presentations using MS Power Point.





Phys 501    Molecular Biophysics                                                                                 2+0

Laws of thermodynamics, heat, energy and work; chemical equilibrium; electron microscope; sedimentation and viscosity; chromatography; electrophoresis; tracer techniques; light scattering and X-ray diffraction; absorption spectroscopy (UV, Visible, Infrared, Raman, NMR, EST) and their uses; circular dichroism and optical rotation, dispersion principles and applications; microarray technology.