Advanced Centre of Hill Bioresources and Biotechnology


Professors/ equivalent


Sharma, S. K.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Plaha, P., Sharma, T. R.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Chauhan, R. S., Rathour, R., Sharma, J. D., Sharma, K. D.



M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Gene Expression, Genome Characterization, Immunodiagnosis, Plant Tissue Culture, Transgenics

Core Courses                      



Biotech 501, Biotech 502, Biotech 503, Biotech 504, Biotech 511, Biotech 512, Biotech 513



Biotech 501    Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology                                                    2+0

The dynamic cell; cell organization; sub-cellular structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; organelle biogenesis; synthesis and sorting of plasma membrane; transport across cell membranes; eukaryotic cell cycle; signal transduction and regulation; cancer/oncogenes; prokaryotes as genetic system; sources of variation; methods of genetic analysis; prokaryotic chromosomes; conjugation, transformation and transduction; eukaryotic genome organization; c-value paradox and cot-value; chromatin structure; chromosome replication; structure and organization of eukaryotic genes -  rRNA, histone and immunoglobin genes; molecular genetics of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and stress.


Biotech 502    Techniques in Cell Biology                                                                   0+2

Principles of microscopy and optics; cell size determination; staining (gram, fluorescence, giemsa); inverted microscopy; root tip mitosis, meiosis and karyotyping; in situ hybridization - FISH and GISH; microtomy and photomicrography; cell fractionation - mitochondria and chloroplast isolation; microbiological techniques - sterilization, media preparation, culture maintenance, single colony purification, bacterial titre estimation, growth curve; replica plating; culture characterization; autotroph isolation; viruses and bacteriophages; biochemical characterization; antibiotic sensitivity; conjugational genetic transformation; generalized transduction; fermentation; immunological techniques - agglutination and precipitation, immuno-electrophoresis; ELISA and RIA.


Biotech 503    Fundamentals of Molecular Biology                                                      2+0

Introduction - week bonds, thermodynamics, equilibrium in molecular recognition and biological functions; proteins - structural organization, conformation, biological functions; enzymes - classification, active sites, kinetics, regulation; nucleic acids - genetic material, structures of DNA and RNA, stereochemistry of bases and secondary structure; organization of the nucleic acids - chromatin structure, genetic structure, analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes; DNA replication - evidence of basic targets, enzymes, models of DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; transcription - enzymes; t, m, r, and hn RNA structures and folding; mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; RNA splicing; translation - ribosomes, genetic code, steps in protein synthesis, post-translation modifications, protein targeting; regulatory mechanism of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis; gene regulation in prokaryotes - gene clustering and operon concept, mechanism of positive and negative control of gene expression; gene regulation in eukaryotes -  translational and transcriptional control of regulatory mechanism of gene expression; genomics - structural genomics, functional genomics, proteomics; applications of genomics.


Biotech 504    Techniques in Molecular Biology                                                            0+2

Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid and genomic DNA; electroelution; SDS-PAGE of protein from microbes and plants; mini and bulk preparation of plasmids from E. coli; mini and bulk preparation of genomic DNA from microbes and plants; restriction mapping of plasmid DNA; transformation of E. coli with plasmid DNA; demonstration of PCR amplification - RAPD; Southern, Northern and Western blotting and hybridization; DNA sequencing; protein sequencing; molecular characterization of DNA Tm.


Biotech 505     Molecular Markers and Genome Characterization                                           1+1

Importance and types of molecular markers; use of proteins as  markers; restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP); variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR); random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD); amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP); sequence tagged microsatellites (STMS); sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR); applications of molecular markers in genome characterization; construction of genetic maps of plants; tagging of specific genes and QTLs with molecular markers.


Extraction and analysis of proteins; isozyme analysis; isolation of DNA; restriction digestion of DNA; Southern hybridization; polymerase chain reaction; demonstrating the use of molecular markers in preparing genetic maps, gene tagging and genome fingerprinting.


Biotech 511    Techniques in Plant Tissue Culture                                                         0+2

Establishment of plant tissue culture laboratory – equipment and culture vessels; surface sterilization and pretreatment of explants; subculture and repeated transfer of explants and cultures; composition of various tissue culture media and their preparation; establishment of callus and suspension cultures, organogenesis and embryogenesis; meristem tip culture; hardening of regenerated plants; techniques of anther, embryo and ovule culture; protoplast isolation, culture and fusion; artificial seed (synthetic seed); cell line selection using selection pressure; production of secondary metabolites; cryopreservation.


Biotech 512    Principles of Genetic Engineering                                                          2+0

Recombinant DNA technology - major events; genomic and cDNA clones; different methodologies and rationale of cloning a gene; tools of genetic engineering - concept of restriction and modification, restriction endonucleases, modifying enzymes, ligases; host-vector system - E. coli as a host; different kinds of vectors - plasmids, phage vectors, M 13, cosmids, phagemids, YACs, BACs, PACs and expression vectors; means of genetic engineering - strategies of cloning and ligation; genomic libraries, cDNA libraries; introduction to molecular marker technology; the product - subcloning, nested deletions; sequencing and sequence analysis; site-directed mutagenesis; expression of cloned genes; isolation and purification of expressed product; PCR - types of PCR, applications of PCR in cloning genes, promoters and flanking sequences, utilizing PCR in the laboratory for preparation of probes; PCR and molecular marker technology; forensics and paternity decisions.


Biotech 513    Techniques in Genetic Engineering                                                        0+2

Cloning and transformation in prokaryotes - vector and insert preparation; ligation; methods of direct transformation - PEG mediated, microinjection, particle bomdardment, electroporation; methods of indirect transformation - Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes; screening for recombinant clones; cloning and transformation in eukaryotes - methods of direct and indirect transformation; isolation of recombinant plasmid; restriction analysis; excision of the insert; restriction analysis of the excised insert; sequence analysis of the insert; construction of genomic and cDNA libraries; gene isolation; promoter analysis; gene expression (reporter gene and immunodetection).

Biotech 514    Biotechnology for Crop Improvement                                                   2+0

Conventional methods for crop improvement – pedigree, heterosis and mutation breeding; tissue culture in crop improvement - micropropagation for virus-free plants, somaclonal variation, somatic hybridization and haploidy; genetic engineering for increasing crop productivity by manipulating photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and nutrient-uptake efficiency; genetic engineering for biotic stress tolerance - insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses and weeds; genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance - drought, flooding, salt and temperature; genetic engineering for quality improvement - protein, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral nutrients; plants as bioreactor; molecular breeding -  constructing molecular maps, molecular tagging of genes, marker-assisted selection for qualitative and quantitative traits; physical maps of chromosomes; concept of gene synteny;  map-based cloning and its use in transgenics.


Biotech 521    Biodiversity, IPR, Biosafety and Bioethics                                             2+0

Definition; historical and geographical causes of diversity; genetic and molecular diversity; species and population biodiversity; quantifying biodiversity; maintenance of ecological biodiversity; biodiversity and Centers of Origins of plants; biodiversity hot spots in India; collection and conservation of biodiversity; assessing, analyzing and documenting biodiversity; morphological and molecular characterization of biodiversity; vulnerability and extinction of biodiversity; introduction to biodiversity database; endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books; global biodiversity information system; intellectual property right (IPR), sovereignty rights, CBD, bioethics and patenting; general agreement on trade and tariffs; Indian sui generis system for plant variety and farmer’s rights protection act; biosafety - definition and requirement; biosafety and biodiversity; biosafety for human health and environment; social and ethical issues; biosafety in relation to transgenic research.


Biotech 522    Bioinformatics                                                                                           1+1

Introduction - computers in biology, software and hardware requirements, internet; databases - concept, accessing a database on internet, searching a database, query and response, developing a database, FTP and WWW; biostatistics - using different software packages like SYSTAT and SAAS; enzyme kinetics - using software like Leonara and Winzyme for enzyme kinetic analysis; genomics - sequencing and sequence analysis software like GCG, genefinder; proteomics - three dimensional structural prediction like swissport; computer graphics - creation of recombinant molecules, virtual analysis of biomolecules using vector NT and DNA star; molecular modeling - modeling of different macromolecules, structural analysis using Hyperchem.


Practicals related to different topics.

Biotech 523    Plant Metabolic Engineering                                                                  2+0

The concept of secondary metabolites; historical and current views; importance of secondary metabolites in medicine and agriculture; introduction of various pathways; flavanoid, terpenoid and polyketoid pathways - chemistry: the basic structure, stereochemistry, chemical synthesis of different intermediates; biochemistry:  biochemical pathway, carbon flow, different regulatory points; intermediate pools and their significance in horticulture, agriculture and medicine; molecular genetics: regulatory genes, gene expression in response to environmental stimuli; regulation of gene expression; biomolecules transformation pathways; networking of the secondary pathways - concepts of common “global” regulation and response, possible links between different pathways via intermediate, implications of adding a new pathway, resource restructuring.


Biotech 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                      1+0 

Biotech 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                   0+1  

Biotech 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                                     1-18










Agricultural Economics


Professors/ equivalent


Saini, A. S., Sharma, R. K., Sharma, S. K., Vashist, G. D.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Ashok Kumar, Chauhan, S. K., Guleria, J. S., Sharma, H. R., Sharma, K. D., Thakur, D. R.,   Virender  Kumar

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Brij Bala, Gupta, M., Harbans Lal, Pathania, M. S.




M. Sc. and Ph. D.

Fields of Specialization


 Agricultural Development, Agricultural Finance,  Agricultural Marketing and Price Analysis, Natural  Resource Economics, Production Economics and Farm  Management

Core Courses                      




M. Sc. : Ag Econ 504, Ag Econ 505, Ag Econ 541,

              Ag Econ 543

Ph. D. : Ag Econ 601, Ag Econ 602, Ag Econ 642



Ag Econ 501    Elementary Micro Economics                                                                2+0

Micro-economics; definition and scope; demand; theories determining demand; elasticity of demand and supply; Marshallian and Walrasian theories of equilibrium of demand and supply; cost concepts; revenue concepts; returns to scale; firm as decision making unit; determination of price and output of commodities under different market situations.


Ag Econ 502    Elementary Macro Economics                                                                2+0 Definition and scope of macro-economics; national income, its measurement and significance; basic concepts in macro economic analysis; Say’s law of market; saving; consumption function; multiplier; investment; accelerator; theories of income determination; synthesis of monetary and real factor; demand; supply and value of money; taxes-types and incidences.


Ag Econ 503    Elements of Economic Theory                                                               3+0

Economic theory, its definition and scope; theory of consumer behaviour; factors affecting demand; elasticity of demand; utility analysis; indifference curve analysis and revealed preference theory; supply, factors affecting supply; elasticity of supply; revenue and cost concepts; internal and external economies; price and output determination in perfect competition, monopoly and other market situations; introduction to theories of distribution; national income-concepts and measurements; India’s national income accounting; consumption function-basic concepts of MPC and APC; multiplier - investment multiplier; government expenditure multiplier, balance budget multiplier and foreign trade multiplier, investment - meaning, concepts, criterion for investment; present value; marginal efficiency of capital; cost-benefit ratio; accelerator; demand for money; quantity theory of money; money multiplier and credit creation; inflation - meaning and effects; introduction to monetary and fiscal polices; taxes-types of taxes, canons of taxation, incidence of taxation; public expenditure, types of public expenditure.


Ag Econ 504    Principles of Micro Economics                                                                 3+0 

Definition, importance and scope of micro economics; theory of consumer behaviour, concepts, utility function-existence and nature, utility maximization-analytical approach, limitation and applications; demand theory, ordinary and compensated demand function; demand theory and elasticity matrix generation; total price effect; decomposition analysis; direct and cross effects and applications generalized to n variables; extended theory of consumer behaviour; theory of revealed preference; consumer’s surplus, expected utility with risk; recent developments in the theory of demand; market equilibrium under static and dynamic conditions; basic theory of the firm; composite commodity theorem; revenue functions; modern theory of cost; supply and elasticity matrix generation-conceptual framework for agricultural commodities; markets - perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly; duopoly; collusive and non-collusive models; factor market-supply and demand functions; future market-hedging, risk assumption; factor pricing under perfect and  imperfect competition; welfare economics.


Ag Econ 505    Principles of Macro Economics                                                            3+0

Importance of the study of macro economics; concept and measurement; national income; consumption- theories of consumption; wealth; money; price level; inflation; employment; unemployment and output in the economy; employment and production; classical theory of saving; investment and interest rate; simple Keynesian and classical synthesis- Keynesian theory of interest; IS-LM form of the model; classical version of the synthesis; input-output model; theory of income determination and multiple market economic systems; multiplier and accelerator analysis; monetary and fiscal policies; integration of macro-economics with monetary analysis in the context of both open and closed economies.


Ag Econ 506    International Economics                                                                            3+0

Importance and scope of international economics; international trade-basis concepts; theory of international trade; absolute and comparative advantage; international trade equilibrium; trade policy protection; tariff and non-tariff measures; trade liberalisation; supply side analysis; opportunity cost; trade under increasing opportunity costs; factor endowments; trade and factor prices; factor price equalisation; demand side analysis; community indifference curves; demand and international trade; integration of demand and supply; offer curve; general equilibrium; equilibrium in product and factor markets; application of trade theory; terms of trade; supply and demand shifts; technological change; factor supplies and trade; factor intensities; transport costs, location; trade with many goods and countries; Leontif paradox; human skills; technological gaps; the product cycle; scale economies; trade and market structure; balance of payment analysis; funds flow; capital and monetary adjustments; the international monetary system.


 Ag Econ 507    Theory of Growth and Development                                                     3+0

Difference between growth and development; theories of economic growth- classical and neoclassical theories, Schumpter’s theory, Keynes Hansen theory for steady growth; determinants of growth; growth models, Marx theory, Rostow model and Nurkse-Lewis model; strategies for economic development, balanced vs. unbalanced growth; theories of “Big Push” and “Critical Minimum Efforts”; theory of demographic transition; population trap, population growth; capital formation, technology and economic growth; social and political factors in economic development; policies for economic development; theories of Myrdal, Singer and Prebisch; planning for economic development; types of planning, stages in the planning process, planning models.


Ag Econ 508    Agricultural Development, Growth, Policy and Planning                                 3+0

Role of agriculture in economic development; theories of agricultural development; economics of traditional agriculture; socio-cultural and other institutional constraints; linkages in agriculture; structural transformation; review of agricultural development in U.S.A., Japan, China and India; planning: India’s five year plans; globalization of economics and its impact on Indian economy; food security and nutrition policy analysis-concepts and definition of food security and malnutrition; impact analysis of production oriented policies; TPDS; measurement of poverty; poverty alleviation and development strategies; rural infrastructure policies; agricultural labor policy; communication and transfer of technology policies; policies for common property resource; land tenure policies and changing agrarian structure; linkages in agricultural research and extension; agricultural market reforms with special emphasis to crop, livestock and fisheries.


Ag Econ 511    Agricultural Finance                                                                              3+0

Nature and significance of agriculture finance; importance of finance to borrower, lending agencies and extension agencies; basic economic principles in agricultural finance; types of credit; acquisition of credit; institutional and non-institutional sources; co-operative banks, land development banks, commercial banks, agricultural financial corporation, regional rural banks, NABARD, etc; business principles involved in financing agricultural enterprises; farm financial management in farm credit; farm planning; capital and credit needs; cost of capital and credit rationing; profile of agricultural credit, revival and growth.


Ag Econ 512    Agricultural Finance and Co-operation                                                            2+1

Definition of credit, classification and role of credit in agriculture and rural development; classification of capital and its sources; principles of capital investment-average rate of return, pay back period, internal rate of return, net present value and capital budgeting; three Rs’ of credit, 3 Cs’ of credit; credit worthiness and methods for assessing repayment capacity; financial accounting system; balance sheet analysis-its valuation, difficulties; income statement analysis - inventory adjustments - financial tests and ratios;  methods for estimation of credit requirement: credit  supply and gap; different methods of charging interest; agricultural credit policy; review of various committee reports on rural credit and investment; multi-agency approach; small farmer’s development agencies, NABARD, NGOs in rural financing; role and functioning of international financial institutions-World Bank, IMF and Asian Development Bank; cooperation –its meaning and role; principles of cooperation; a brief resume of major cooperative organisations and their functioning.


Computation of average rate of return; pay back period; internal rate of return; net present value and capital budgeting; estimation of credit requirements; assessment of credit worthiness and repayment capacity; accounting basics; balance sheet preparation and analysis; preparation of income statement; financial tests and ratios; review of various credit and finance committee reports; growth and performance of cooperative institutions.

Ag Econ 513    Agricultural Project Analysis                                                                 2+1

Definition, identification and formulation of project; need for project; ex-ante, concurrent, and ex-post appraisal; methods of evaluating farm assets; basic data requirement, discounted cash flow analysis and measure of probability; choice of discount rate; consideration of alternatives; divergence of private and social profits; allocation of scarce resources: land, labour, capital, foreign exchange; present and future consumption; optimum use of taxes and subsidy; public ownership and planning, relationship between plans and projects; selection and investment programme; private sector projects, methods of evaluation of private projects; social cost benefit and switching values; uses and abuses of sensitivity analysis; accounting prices for traded and non-traded goods; marginal social benefits; financing of projects; impact of project outputs on production and consumption elsewhere; shadow wage rates and accounting rate of interest; uncertainty and investment criteria; external effects related to inputs and outputs of the projects; indicators of economic worthiness in project appraisal; period of recovery; capital output ratio, accounting rate of return, benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return, net present value.


Evaluation of farm assets; discounted cash flow analysis; evaluation of projects; estimating social costs and benefits; investment criteria; economic worthiness and cost-benefit analysis.


Ag Econ 521    Agricultural Marketing                                                                          2+1

Definition, importance and scope of marketing; types of markets; special characteristics of agricultural marketing; marketing functions, assembling, exchange, distribution and facilitation functions; defects in existing system of agricultural marketing and remedies; marketing agencies and channels; marketing costs, margins and price spread; specialization and integration; marketing efficiency; role of government and private agencies in agricultural marketing.


Study of different types of agricultural markets; market conduct, structure and performance; channels in selected agricultural commodities; study of marketing costs and market margins in selected agricultural commodities; study of price spreads for selected commodities; visit to selected grain, fruit, vegetable and livestock markets.


Ag Econ 522    Agricultural Marketing and Price Analysis                                            2+1                         Role of agricultural marketing and price analysis in agricultural development; marketing structure, conduct and performance analysis; marketing channels for different products in agriculture and animal husbandry; state intervention in agricultural marketing; pricing policy models of agricultural inputs and products; buffer stocking and import policies for agricultural produce; value addition and its impact on prices of agricultural commodities; systems approach to agricultural marketing; marketing costs, margins and market efficiency; market integration-horizontal and vertical, spatial and temporal; price integration between domestic and international markets; forward trading, speculation and hedging; application of quantitative techniques in marketing; market chain analysis; decision theory; transportation model; network analysis; demand-supply projections; marketed surplus model - Raj Krishna, Behrman, Janvry and Kumar; agricultural price policy; price stabilization measures and policies.


Computation of marketing costs and estimation of marketing margins and price-spread; statistical assessment of market integration; hedging; solving marketing problems using transportation, Markov chains; decision theory, and network models; estimation of demand and supply elasticity; projecting demand and supply; estimation of marketed surplus.


Ag Econ 523    Agricultural Business Management                                                      2+1

Role and organization of agricultural business; agricultural business perspective; managing, operating and organization of agricultural business; cooperatives in agricultural business; financial management and control of agricultural business; financial statement and its analysis; tools for controlling  decision making in agriculture business; agricultural marketing systems; marketing management in agricultural business management; tools of marketing decisions; selling process; production planning and controlling production process in the agricultural business; human resource management; personal management.


Basic principles involved in agricultural business management; technology used; book keeping; double and single entry system; accountancy; journal and ledgers posting; various types of errors in accounting; income statement, balance sheet; financial ratios; managing land, labour and capital; marketing; grading, packaging and quality control; marketing costs and margins.

Ag Econ 531   Economics of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainability        2+1

Natural resources-definitions; characteristics and classification; major natural resource issues; common property resources; time and spatial analysis in use of renewable and non-renewable natural resources; natural resource accounting; meaning, nature and scope of environmental economics; environmental concerns, environmental degradation and losses; alternative technologies on environment and sustainability; environmental policy analysis; agricultural development and its effect on ecology and environment; elements of environmental degradation in agriculture; insecticides/pesticides and residue in food; environmental impact assessment- different methods to measure the impact of pollution-internalizing external costs into the product pricing; environmental protection: an economic overview; elements of environmental protection-sustainable agriculture; preservation of biological diversity; institutional measures and regulatory tools for environmental protection; integrated farming; organic farming; issues of food security and international trade; sustainability: concerns-definition and concept of sustainability; conditions for sustainable development, indicators of sustainability and its measurement; farming systems approach to sustainable development; its evolution, methodologies,  implementation and challenges.


Temporal and spatial elements in natural resources; natural resources accounting; utility functions; social welfare functions; estimation of economic losses of environmental degradation; environmental costs of technological development; environmental legislation.


Ag Econ 532    Tea Economics and Marketing                                                                         2+1

History of tea cultivation in India; tea economics-definition, concepts like farm, firm, costs, revenue, production, production function, fixed and working capitals, growth curves etc; break-even yield; production and productivity, meaning and significance; factors affecting tea productivity and methods to increase it; budgeting and economic appraisal of tea crop; role, functions and responsibilities of institutions in tea industry of India, viz; NABARD, nationalized banks, tea board of India, co-operatives, state and central research institutions; NGOs, Tea Association of India etc.; schemes for small tea growers; labour in tea industry; functions and principles of management; marketing – meaning of market and marketing; marketing strategy; marketing mix; tea auction centres in India and abroad; marketable and marketed surplus; factors affecting marketable surplus; marketing function – processing (black tea, green tea), grading, branding, packing and packaging, transportation, storages, warehousing etc.; advertising; market integration; channels of tea distribution, costs and margins in the tea distribution; marketing research – methods of conducting research; export potential of Indian tea; world tea consortium (WTC); WTO and tea industry of India.


Visit to tea estates/ tea co-operative factories and preparation of inventories; preparation of schedules for data collection on production and marketing of tea; collection of primary data from tea growers regarding use of inputs, production and disposal of tea; sales promotion techniques; computation of costs, returns and break-even yield; estimation of trends in area, production, yield, consumption and export of tea; estimation of costs, margins and price-spread through different marketing channels.

Ag Econ 533    Fisheries Economics                                                                             2+1

Characteristics and definition of fishery; background of Indian fisheries development and economic growth; empirical evidences of over exploitation of fishery resources; coastal jurisdiction of states; shared access to coastal stocks; trans-boundary stocks, migratory stocks; administrative mechanism of fisheries management in India; factors affecting the choice of management regimes; fish and fishing; basic bio-economic relationships in fisheries; open access and common property resources; management issues; capture fisheries; externalities in fisheries; stock, technological and congestion externalities; catch per unit of fishing effort; revenue, costs, profit and rent; sustainable yield curve; Schaefer’s model maximum sustainable yield and three bioeconomic optimals; catch limits, restrictive licensing and individual transferable quotas; economic aspects of aquaculture; measurement of intensity in aquaculture; farm size and efficiency; input-output relationships; economic analysis of composite culture; social welfare economics and aquaculture.


Computation of fishery economics-estimation of cost, production, profit, marketing cost and margins; basic and bio-economic relationship in fisheries; input-output relationship; measurement of efficiency in fish production; measurement of technological change; estimation of fish demand and supply; estimation of post-harvest losses and methods for their minimization.

Ag Econ 541    Research Methodology in Social Sciences                                                      1+2

Social sciences-definition, goals and functions; role of social science research in agriculture; agricultural economics research- induction and deduction; sources of information; review of literature; identification of problem and formulation of objectives and hypotheses; types of data and their sources; methods of data collection-formal sampling and informal (PRA,RRA); survey techniques; preparation of questionnaire; interview method; mail order method; cost accounting method; analysis of data, methods of analysis; introduction to statistical software for social sciences; application of consumer software like SPSS, LIMDEP,TSP, SHAZAM,SAS for solving problems; report writing- methods of reporting; use of tables, graphs, diagram, etc. in reports, using computers; index numbers, construction and their application.


The student will identify a problem in agricultural economics and work on the problem during the semester as trained in theory classes by intensively using personal computers; construction of index numbers.


Ag Econ 542    Agricultural Production Economics                                                      2+1

Introduction to economic principles as applicable to agriculture; basic concepts of production function; historical background and characteristics of different forms of production functions-linear, quadratic, square-root, Spillman, cubic, semi-log, Cobb-Douglas, transcendental, CES, VES and Leontief; homogeneous and homothatic production function; derivation of demand and supply functions; static and dynamic production functions and their applications; spatial and temporal allocation of resources; resource-use efficiency: size, productivity and returns to scale; allocative efficiency; analysis of factor shares in agriculture and their implications on income distribution; risk attitudes in agriculture; optimization under risk and uncertainty; measurement of technological change; decomposition analysis; total factor productivity.


Specification and estimation of different production functions; estimation of profit functions; estimation of production elasticity; working out optimal use of resources; least-cost combination of inputs; optimum combination of enterprises: independent, joint, supplementary, complementary and competitive; estimation of ‘b’ values in different production functions; allocative efficiency and factor share analysis; measurement of risk and optimization under risk; measurement of total factor productivity; derivation of output demand and factor supply functions.


Ag Econ 543    Econometrics                                                                                        2+1

Definition, importance and scope of econometrics; correlations and regression; partial correlation and its uses; residual variance; co-efficient of multiple determination; standard errors of estimated coefficients and their uses; representation of economic phenomenon; relationship among economic variables; linear and non-linear economic models; analysis of time series data; their interpretation; growth curves and their estimation; ordinary least squares methods of estimation of simple and multiple regression models; BLUE properties of least squares estimate; tests of significance and confidence intervals; Houthakkar’s and Taylor dynamic models; multicollinearity; use of dummy variables; generalised Aitken’s least-squares methods of estimation; random coefficients models; heteroscedasticity; auto-correlation; Durbin-Watson test; error of specification; estimation from group data identification; principal component analysis; maximum likelihood estimation.


Selection of model for collective data; identification of variables; estimation of regression models; test for autocorrelation; multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity; use of dummy variables; distributed lag models; use of PC for linear regression models.


Ag Econ 544    Optimization Techniques                                                                     2+1

Basic concepts, theoretical background and mathematical basis underlying optimization models; problem formulation for programming; preparation of input-output matrix, objectives for programming; objective functions and constraint equations; assumptions of L.P.; basic and non-basic solutions; feasible and infeasible solutions; simplex method and its application for solving agricultural problems; use of artificial factors; problems of degeneracy, inconsistency, infeasible and unbounded solutions; generalised simplex method; the dual method; dual simplex method; application of linear programming for solving practical problems in farming with the help of variable price programming; integer programming; recursive programming and risk programming (MOTAD); theory of games and application of linear programming for solving game problems in farm-decision making; sensitivity analysis; multi-criterion decision making models in agriculture; transportation models; farm level/state level/ regional level/sector level modeling of agriculture; application of computer software’s like EXCEL, GAMS for solving practical optimization problems.


Formulation of a linear programming models; working out ‘simplex’ solution; working out duality; sensitivity analysis; formulation of game theory problems; multi-criteria decision making; transportation type problems; use of PCs for LP models.


Ag Econ 545    Livestock Economics                                                                            2+1

Meaning, nature and scope of livestock economics; organisation of a livestock farm as a decision making unit; livestock management; organization of livestock and poultry farm; livestock and poultry records; assessment of livestock records both financial and general; estimation of livestock and poultry products; factors affecting cost of production; role of govt. and co-operative sector in the development of livestock enterprise in India; constraints towards commercialization of livestock and poultry farms; structure, conduct and  performance of livestock and poultry markets in India; analysis of demand and supply for livestock and poultry products; determination of price; govt. policy and economic losses on account of livestock diseases.


Visits to livestock and poultry farms and their organizational setup; visits to livestock and poultry markets and preparation of critical report with regard to structure, conduct and performance of livestock and poultry markets; estimation of cost and returns from livestock and poultry; estimation of marketing functions and efficiency in livestock and poultry marketing; estimation of economic losses due to diseases.

Ag Econ 546    Intellectual property rights and globalization in agriculture                            2+0             

Theory of IPRs: various instruments of intellectuals property protection – patents, trade marks, service marks, copy rights, trade secrets, geographical indications etc. in national and international context; international harmonization of patent laws; licensing of techniques; convention on biological diversity and it significance in agriculture; plant breeders’ and farmers’ rights, seed act in Indian context; marketing rights and management of IPRs; globalization-its impact in Indian agriculture.


Ag Econ 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                     1+0 

Ag Econ 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                    0+1  

Ag Econ 600     M. Sc. Research                                                                                1-18 


Ag Econ 601    Advanced Micro Economic Theory                                                        3+0

Advances in the theories of consumers behaviour; utility measurement; Bandbagon, Snob and Veblon effects; utility analysis of choices involving risks; critical appraisal of Hicks revised theory of demand; equilibrium analysis under monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition and implication of profit maximization; critical review of goal of  firm, entry preventing, behavioural and managerial theories; sales revenue maximization;  general equilibrium analysis including linear models in welfare economics; modern theories with focus on risk and uncertainty; advances in theories of rent, wages, interest and profit.


Ag Econ 602    Advanced Macro Economic Theory                                                      3+0

National income accounting; national income under two-sector, three-sector and four-sector economies; review of macro economic models; aggregate demand and supply under neoclassical; Keynesian and modern theories; consumption-theories determining relationship between consumption and income; multiplier effect; investment-business investment and inventory investment; accelerator effect; super multiplier; effect of foreign sector; demand and supply of money; effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies; labour market and investment mechanism; money illusions and formal models of income; prices and employment determination; macro economic models under disequilibrium; international trade and level of income; exchange rate; mechanism of adjustment; tariffs, quotas and balance of payment.


Ag Econ 603    Advances in Agricultural Economics                                                               2+0

Agricultural and economic development in historical perspective; role of agriculture in   modern India’s socio-economic development; share of human resources in agricultural development of an economy under changed regimes; measurement problems in agricultural sector; disguised unemployment in agriculture – a survey; advances in economic theory and agrarian analysis; migration from agriculture; relation between national resources and economic growth; thoughts on land settlement; buffer stock; external assistance; food security; national security and agricultural policy; sustainability issues and role of economists in changed W.T.O. regimes.


Ag Econ 604    Agricultural Policy                                                                                    3+0

Meaning of agricultural policy; criteria for policy-means, ends and conflicts of objectives; a simple model of welfare maximization; agricultural policy for interpersonal and interregional balance in growth; production policy, food policy-production, marketing and distribution; evaluation of agricultural price policy in short and long run; agricultural taxation and subsidy; land policy, land uses and land reforms; credit policy; allocation of public funds including research funds and institutional credit among regions and commodities; population-energy policy; the working of agricultural policy under different economic systems; historical experience of food policy; famines; PL-480 policy during green revolution.


Ag Econ 605    Mathematical Economics                                                                       3+0

Role of mathematical economics in agricultural economics; applications of straight lines; non-linear exponential and logarithmic curves in economics; trigonometric function and its applications in economics; differential calculus; applications of derivatives in economics; maxima and minima under constrained and unconstrained situations; Lagrange multiplier and its applications; Kuhn-Tucker conditions; homogeneous and non-homogeneous functions; Euler’s theorem; matrix algebra; review of matrix operations; solutions of simultaneous equations by matrices; solution of maxima and minima of functions of n-variables using matrices; quadratic form and its uses in economics; applications of matrix algebra in input-output analysis; difference equations; linear difference equations and their solutions; non-homogeneous difference equations; application of difference equations in economics; differential equations; linear and higher-order differential equations with their applications in economics; integral calculus, application of indefinite and definite integrals in economics.


Ag Econ 611    Advanced Agricultural Finance                                                                        2+1

Role of financial institutions in financing agriculture; rural credit review panels reports; principles of financial returns; financial analysis and planning; investment in capital assets; management of funds; evaluation of financial alternatives; expansion and contraction; review of trends in agricultural credit policy; comparative study of various credit agencies; role of different projects in rural financing; developing infra-structure in agricultural financing in India and abroad.


Accountancy and book keeping; study of various basic terms used in financing; books of account e.g.; journal; ledger; transactions in the books of account and errors in posting ; income statement analysis of balance sheet; appraisal and project evaluation techniques; trends in agricultural financing.


Ag Econ 612    Advanced Monetary Theory                                                                 3+0

Role of money; credit and liquidity as related to income; employment and prices; recent advances in theory of money; monetary equilibrium; goals of monetary policy; stabilizations and monetary policy; problems of planning and flexibility; international monetary institutions.


Ag Econ 621    Advanced Agricultural Marketing                                                             2+1

General theory of markets and marketing; agricultural marketing and economic development; changing pattern of agricultural marketing; some functional problems-degree of competition in agricultural marketing; number and size of firms; base of entry and exit of firms; vertical and horizontal integration; market organization-structure, conduct and integration; marketing costs with emphasis on transportation and storage costs and reducing the costs; operational and pricing efficiency in marketing; agricultural processing industries; commodity marketing; marketing of  agricultural inputs; overall marketing strategy and marketing management.


Study of different marketing functions in selected markets, detailed study of different markets covering various agricultural commodities in respect of arrivals; discussion of empirical findings on the above topics; seasonal changes in prices; integration between different markets; case studies of commodities in respect of price-spread in selected markets; time series analysis and index numbers.


Ag Econ 622    Advanced Agricultural Price Analysis                                                  3+0

Functions of agricultural prices; agricultural sector and role of prices; characteristics of the demand and supply of farm products; effect of prices; problems of pricing of agricultural products; process of making pricing decisions; structure and behaviour of prices; price policies; price programmes and price stabilization measures; vertical integration, shortage and buffer-stock operations; price discrimination; speculation; future markets and price stability; pricing strategy; price policy in India under different plans including food procurement and distribution; nationalization of trade with reference to agricultural commodities and its impact on prices of important agricultural commodities.


Ag Econ 623    Seed Marketing and Management                                                                    2+1

Basic concepts in seed production; seed industry - its importance in India; demand and supply of seed; cost of production of seed and returns; determination of seed needs, pricing and seed policy; processing and packaging; sales promotion, marketing channels, and margins in seed industry; role of govt. in efficient seed marketing; quality control and assurance.


Estimation of cost of seed, marketing costs and margins of seeds of different crop.


Ag Econ 631    Environmental Economics                                                                    3+0

Meaning, role and scope of environmental economics; environmental problems in developing and developed nations; population and environmental sustainability; agricultural development and its effect on ecology and environment; natural resource accounting; inter-temporal use of natural resources; sources of inefficiency in natural resource use-market behaviour, property rights and government policies; causes of degradation of natural resources; sub-optimal land use practices and their reach to people through food; environmental costs of technological advances; equity and ecology; elements of environmental protection-sustainable agriculture and its dimensions; preservation of biological diversity; deforestation; integrated farming-crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries, organic farming; institutional measures to protect watersheds and ground water; regulatory tools in market forces to protect the environment; economic instruments for environmental protection; food security; common property resources and natural resource management; forestry; developmental conservation.


Ag Econ 641    Advanced Production Economics                                                         2+1

Production concepts; resource-product relationship in agriculture, forms of production functions, economic applications; resource allocation and enterprise combination to meet price variability; flexibility and derivation of cost and supply function from production functions; the Cobb-Douglas function; elasticity of substitution; returns to scale; technical progress in C.D. functions; the constant elasticity of substitution function; efficiency; distribution and substitution function in the CES function on alternative estimation procedure; technical progress and the CES function; returns to scale and the CES function.


Computation of different types of production functions; derivation of ridge lines, iso-clines, isoquants, expansion paths etc, from different types of production functions; computation of optimum input-use for maximization of profits under different production functions; derivations of demand and cost functions from production function; estimation of elasticities and returns to scale from production functions.


Ag Econ 642    Advanced Econometrics                                                                                    2+1

A critical review of methodological approach for econometric research, a brief review of heteroscedasticity, homoscedasticity, autocorrelation and multicollinearity  meaning plausibility  of assumption, consequences of multicollinearity, tests of multicollinearity  and solution for incidence of multicollinearity;  specification bias; two and three stage least squares; full and limited information methods; maximum likelihood methods; recursive model; forecasting power of estimated model; inconsistency; Monte-Carlo studies; flexible forms of production functions and macro-econometric model.


Study of violation of OLS assumptions and their remedies; regression analysis under lagged models; application of 2 and 3 stage least square estimates.


Ag Econ 643    Operations Research in Agriculture I                                                   2+1

Definition, importance and scope of operations research; the problem of decision making in agriculture; nature and methods of operation research and their use in decision making and research; mathematical programming and its application in agriculture - extensions of linear, recursive, dynamic and non-linear programming; game theory; markov chain; inventory analysis, simulation and transportation problems.


Estimation of alternative farm plans with the help of various techniques; application of inventory models to farm and livestock; application of game theory in agriculture decisions.


Ag Econ 644    Operations Research in Agriculture II                                                   2+1

Categories of models; system terminology; static and dynamic deterministic models; static and dynamic stochastic models; system approach; system analysis; system components; methods and related steps; alternate categories of models; system analysis relationship from empirical data system synthesis; input-output analysis; simulation; simulation methodology; perspective on application; application in agricultural economics, model sensitivity; statistical assessment; decision theory; introduction to decision analysis; concepts of utility and non-linear preference; Bernoulli’s principle; unidimensional and multidimensional utilities; procedures for decision analysis; Taylor series approximation of utility functions; portfolio-like analysis; risk response analysis.


Computation of input-output models in agriculture; simulation techniques in agriculture; numericals from Bernoulli’s principle, estimation techniques of portfolio models especially used in agriculture.


Ag Econ 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                                 1+0 

Ag Econ 692    Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                                            0+1  

Ag Econ 700    Ph. D. Research                                                                                                           1-18 

 Agricultural Engineering

Professors/ equivalent


 Kumar, Rajinder, Verma, H. N.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Goel, A. K., Gupta, A. K., Sharma, D. K., Vatsa,  V. K.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


 Mann, S. S., Singh, S., Singh, S. P.




Minor and supporting



Ag Engg 501    Soil and Water Conservation Engineering                                           2+1

Soil erosion and factors affecting; universal soil loss equation; precipitation and runoff; prediction of peak flow; erosion control measures-strip cropping, bunding and terracing; stream bank protection; gully control structures; earthen embankments and farm ponds; measures to reduce seepage losses during conveyance and storage.


Study of rainfall and runoff measuring equipments; analysis of rainfall data and runoff hydrograph; design of contour and graded bunds; design and preparation of estimates for different soil conservation structures; measurement of seepage losses during conveyance and storage.


Ag Engg 502    Watershed Management                                                                      2+1

Watershed management, a need for integrated approach in the hills, role of hydrograph in agricultural productivity, rainfall distribution, soil erosion - its measurement and control, universal soil loss equation and other soil erosion models,  degradation of soil productivity due to soil erosion,  rainfall simulators and scope of their use in soil erosion studies, sedimentation of reservoirs,  catchment area treatment in river valley and irrigation projects,  artificial groundwater recharge, water harvesting - various methods and structures,  morphologic description of watershed, watershed based water management,  economics of water management,  participatory mode of water management.


Watershed delineation: watershed discretisation; assessment of inflow and outflow; measurement, calculation and interpretation of geomorphologic parameters; land and water use planning of watershed.


Ag Engg 503    Irrigation Engineering                                                                                      2+1

Sources of irrigation water; ‘kuhl’ irrigation in hills; water conveyance and control structures; methods of measurement of irrigation water; irrigation efficiencies; design of surface, subsurface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems; types of aquifers; construction and development of wells; well hydraulics; centrifugal pumps-principles of working, installation, characteristics curves and trouble shooting.


Measurement of irrigation water; design of irrigation channels; estimation of water requirement of crops; design of irrigation methods; operation and maintenance of sprinkler and trickle irrigation systems; installation and maintenance of centrifugal pumps.


Ag Engg 504    Watershed Hydrology                                                                            2+1

Hydrologic system; elements of agricultural hydrology; concept of watershed; factors affecting behaviour of a watershed; problems and prospects of watershed management; overland flow phenomenon; collection of hydrologic data; runoff hydrograph and its interpretation; estimation of design runoff; rate and runoff volume from watersheds under different land uses; water harvesting; design of farm ponds.


 Use of topographic maps for watershed identifications, preparation and interpretation of land use map, runoff estimation from rainfall and watershed information, hydrograph analysis, development of unit hydrograph and its use, measurement of stream flow and sediment flow, planning for watershed development.


Ag Engg 505    Structures For Soil and Water Management                                         2+0

Design considerations-hydrologic, hydraulic and structural; soil conservation structures with reference to hills and mountains; different types of spillways; diversion, conveyance, regulation and control structures; drainage structures; design of water harvesting reservoirs; cost analysis.


Ag Engg 506    Drainage Engineering                                                                             2+0 

Need for drainage in agriculture; drainage surveys and investigations; drainage coefficient; surface drainage systems; design of drainage channels; tile drainage-depth and spacing of tiles; types of tile drainage systems; design of gravel envelope; supplemental structures; mole drainage; isobath and water table contour maps; drainage by pumping from wells.


Ag Engg 511    Selection and Management of Farm Machinery                                                          2+0

 Farm tools and machinery for hills, machine performance parameters; common field machine operational patterns and their efficiencies; costs of using farm machinery-fixed, variable and timeliness; optimum selection of power source and matching implements; custom hiring of farm machinery, optimal equipment replacement policy; inventory control of spare parts; care, maintenance and repair of farm equipment.


Ag Engg 512    Land Development Machinery                                                             2+0

Basic principles of earth moving; relevant properties of soil for earth work; methods of levelling, grading and computation of earth work; earth moving machines-bulldozers, scrapers, excavators and dumpers; animal/power-tiller/tractor driven land grading equipment; cost estimation; selection, operation and maintenance of land development machinery.


Ag Engg 513    Seed Processing Machinery                                                                 2+0

Basic seed flow patterns in seed processing plant; drying requirements of different seeds; cleaning and grading; seed treatment; seed testing and quality control; packaging and storage of seeds; planning and layout of seed processing plant; cost estimation.


Ag Engg 514    Principles and Application of Ergonomics                                                       2+0

Human factors in system development; energy liberation and transfer; work, energy and mechanical efficiency of human body; anthropometry and its applications; biomechanics automation; controls and related devices and their design considerations; the man-machine system concept; human behaviour models; thermal influences on human performance; case studies on ergonomics.


Ag Engg 521   Food Process Engineering                                                                       2+0

Importance of food processing and its present status in the country with special reference to hills, engineering principles of underlying processing operations in food (cereals, fruits and vegetables) industry; basic principles of food dehydration and drying; freeze drying, evaporation and drying equipment; size reduction, cleaning, mixing and separation, sorting and grading of food material; food preservation, packaging and storage; quality control; selection of equipment and its installation.


Ag Engg 522    Farm Structures                                                                                               2+0

Functional planning and layout of farm stead in hills and mountains; farm buildings and livestock production facilities; storage structures for food, feed, farm machinery and crop inputs; application of thermal and structural designs, principles of farm buildings; specifications, cost estimation and economics of structures on the farm.


Ag Engg 523    Engineering Properties of Biological Materials                                                            2+0

Biological materials; uniqueness in relation to other materials; physical characteristics-shape, size, volume, density, surface area, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties; aerodynamic characteristics and frictional properties; stress-strain-time effects; rheological models and applications; application of engineering properties in design and operation of agricultural equipment structures.


Ag Engg 531    Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources                                                     2+1

Renewable energy sources and their necessity; solar radiation; fundamentals of energy transfer; solar water heaters, dryers and cookers; photovoltaic cells; wind mills; smokeless ‘chulhas’, use in crops, vegetables and fruit drying, bioconversion of biological wastes; biogas plants-construction, operation and maintenance.


 Measurement of solar radiation; determination of the efficiency of solar cookers;  practical demonstration of different designs of smokeless ‘chulhas’; measurement of power from photovoltaic cells; evaluation of biogas plants.


Ag Engg 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                                1+0


 Agroforestry and Environment


Professors/ equivalent



Associate Professors/ equivalent


Punam, Uppal, R.



Minor and Supporting



AFE 501    Principles and Practices of Agroforestry Systems                                        2+1

Agroforestry-definition, objectives, importance, potential and impediments in implementation; concepts of agroforestry practices and systems; overview of global agroforestry systems  – shifting cultivation, taungya system, multiple and mixed cropping, shelterbelts and wind breaks, energy plantations and homestead gardens, specific systems of hilly regions; concepts of community forestry and social forestry, linear strip plantations; waste lands – definition, extent, characteristics; reclamation of degraded lands through agroforestry interventions – silvipastoral, SALT technology, etc.


Survey and stratification studies  of existing agroforestry systems in the adjoining areas; productivity analysis of the existing systems.


AFE 502    Management and Productivity in Agroforestry systems                                           2+0

Classification of agroforestry systems, ecozones and choice of system; system components and their integration; management - different aspects and practices, thinning, coppicing, lopping, pollarding, pruning etc.; criteria for selection of agroforestry design, role of tree architecture and management towards production; resource input and output flows, system viability and interpretation, ecological sustainability – bioenergetics and production dynamics; recent trends in agroforestry development – technologies and research with special emphasis on space and time considerations and introduction to on-farm trials.


AFE 503    Silvics and Measurement of Agroforestry trees                                          2+0

Studies pertaining to distribution, phenology, growth behaviour, autecology, synecology, community environment and regeneration techniques of the following tree species of the hilly regins : Acacia, Terminalia, Robinia pseudocacia, Grewia optiva, Morus alba, Celtis australis, Bauhinia variegata, Albizia spp, Populus spp, Eucalyptus spp; theory of tree measurement, instruments and methods for measuring tree diameter, height, bark thickness, crown volume and crown surface area, tree stem form, measurement and computation of volume of standing and felled tree; biomass estimation and determination of tree age.


Measurement of girth, diameter, height, crown length and width, increment boring, computation of volume of standing and felled trees.


AFE 504    Designing and Modeling in Agroforestry                                                     2+1

Designing of agroforestry systems, experiments on hedgerow, live fences, mixed intercropping, alley cropping; elements of modeling, model building, modeling philosophy, validation, sensitivity analysis; statistical decision theory, statistical hypothesis; introduction to various mathematical techniques for modeling; renewable resources and making management decisions; difference and differential equation models, Leslies matrix model of population growth and simulation.


Curve fitting, difference and differential equation models, seasonal growth models, compartment and Leslis matrix model; incomplete block design and alpha design.


AFE 505    Tree - Crop Interaction in Agroforestry                                                        2+1

Introduction to the concepts of agroforestry interactions, types of interactions – symmetric, asymmetric, ammensalism, commensalism, competition, predation etc.; effects of interactions on productivity, resource pool, temporal and spatial resource allocation, above- ground and below ground interactions on productivity, allelopathy, root behaviour, crown architecture including methods for minimizing unfavourable interactions; canopy management, concept of photosynthetically active radiation, productivity potential and resource sharing.


Tree architecture classification, different techniques for root studies, practices of canopy management, determination of PAR values for different trees.


AFE 506    Socio-ecological Applications in Agroforestry                                            2+0

Introduction to functions of agroforestry practices, ecological and economical compatibility of different practices; technology development, transfer, policy and planning with special reference to mountainous regions; diagnosis and design in agroforestry, social ecology – concepts in agroforestry applications, efficiency and distributive considerations in agroforestry project design, distortion of agroforestry incentives; theories, models and methods of anthropological forestry.


AFE 511    Propagation and Tree Improvement                                                                       2+1

Importance of tree improvement, approach to tree improvement for agroforestry, concept of provenance and progeny testing, plus tree selection, modified screening practices for agroforestry, tree selection criteria, species and ideotype selection, concept of barefoot tree breeders; seed - source, harvesting and processing, quality testing, factors affecting seed germination, macro and micro – propagation techniques, principles of propagation by seeds, cuttings, grafting and layering, specialized stems, roots and tissue culture.


Tree classification into different ideotypes, seed testing; study of different propagation techniques – cutting, layering, grafting etc.; visit and study of seed orchard designs.


AFE  512    Trees and Shrubs for Agroforestry                                                             2+1

Introduction, importance of woody elements – trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems, their role in biomass production ; nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs; multipurpose trees in agroforestry systems and specifically for hill agroforestry systems, choice of species for various agro climatic zones for the production of timber, fodder, fuel wood, fibre, bee forage, live hedges, alley cropping, wind breaks and green manuring;  important diseases, insects and pests of trees and shrubs in agroforestry systems.


Identification of important agroforestry trees and shrubs, herbarium preparation, collection of samples of important diseases and  insects of agroforestry trees and shrubs; visit to agroforestry research institutions.


AFE 513    Forest Nursery and Afforestation Techniques                                              2+1

Review of regional nursery practices, nursery site selection, types, design and layout, nursery soil and water management, production schedule, seed source, collection, processing, storage, testing and pre-sowing treatments, seed bed preparation and sowing; early tending-watering, weeding and shading, container and bare root seedlings, pricking and out transplanting, lifting, packing and transportation, media and mixtures, macro- and micro-propagation, propagation structures, shaded house, poly house, mist chambers and growth chambers, nursery soil fertility management, rhizobial and mycorrhizal associations, nursery insect and pest control, plantation techniques in arid, coastal, hilly areas, water logged and salt affected sites, plantation layout designs, aftercare for seedling establishment.


Preparation of seedling schedule for economic tree species, seed treatments and sowing, preparation of media for tissue culture, polybag nursery exercises, nursery raising, lifting, grading and packaging of nursery stock, planting techniques – demonstration for arid, water logged, salt affected and sloping lands, tending operations, vigour of seedling, assessment of quality of seedlings.


AFE 521    Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants                                                         2+1

Studies on botanical features of important species of Aconitum, Artemisia, Atropa, Papaver, Adhatoda, Berberis, Cannabis, Dioscorea, Digitalis, Ephedra, Fagopyrum, Hyoscyamus, Jurinea, Mentha, Ocimum, Podophyllum, Rauvolfia, Rhaum, Salvia, Saussurea, Solanum, Viola and Withania; cultivation technology of important medicinal plants of hills – time of sowing, nursery raising, spacing, fertilizer requirement, crop rotation and suitable time of harvesting the economic parts, export potential, marketing and constraints in disposal of  products; physiological factors affecting action and toxicity of medicinal plants, extraction of valuable component drugs.


Identification of medicinal and aromatic plants and their seeds, nursery technology, planting methods and cultural practices of important medicinal and aromatic plants, extraction of volatile and non-volatile oils, visit to herbal gardens and factories.


AFE 522    Wood and Wood Products                                                                          1+1

Products and services available from woody species; chemical constituents of wood and their calorific value; wood seasoning and preservation with reference to small timber; food, fibre, flosses, waxes, oils, gum, dyes, resin, tannin, cutch and katha; utilization of wood waste material, saw dust, lops, taps and bark; medicinal and aromatic plants.


Chemical analysis of wood for hemicellulose, lignin, extractives, etc.; identification of important plants specially of hilly regions yielding fibre, flosses, waxes, oils, dyes, resin, tannin, medicinal and aromatic products; simple wood preservation treatments.


AFE 591            M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                                            1+0




Professors/ equivalent


Angiras, N. N., Awasthi, K. R., Bassi, K., Deor, B. S.,

Kalia, B. D., Kapoor, B. L., Nayital, S., Negi, P. S., Puri, U. K., Sharma, H. L., Sharma, J. J., Shekhar, J., Sood, B. R.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Badiyala, D., Gautam, S., Kataria, R., Kumar, N., Kumar, S., Negi, S. C., Pathania, P., Prasad, R., Saini, J. P., Saroch, K., Sharma, V., Thakur, D. R., Thakur, K. S.


Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Bindra, A. D., Kumar, A., Kumar, P., Malkotia, R.,

Manchanda, A. K., Mankotia, B. S., Manuja, S., Rana, R. S., Rana, M. C., Rana, S., Sharma, G. D., Sharma, V., Singh, J.




M.Sc. and Ph. D.


Fields of Specialization


Cropping Systems and Crop Production, Weed Science, Mineral Nutrition and Water Management, Agrostology, Agrometeorology


Core Courses                      


M. Sc. : Agron 501, Agron 511, Agron 521, Agron 522

Ph. D. : Agron 601, Agron 611, Agron 622     



Agron 501    Modern concepts in crop production                                                      3+0

Agroecological zones of India and Hindu Kush Himalayas; crop growth in relation to environment in these zones, concept of potential yield and its realization; modern concepts of tillage - zero or minimum, conservation tillage, etc., optimisation of plant population and planting geometry in relation to soil fertility, solar radiation and available moisture regimes; Mitscherlich, Baule and Inverse-yield-nitrogen laws; biotic and abiotic stresses; concept of ideal plant type; crop modeling for maximizing yield; crop response production functions; cropping and farming systems for sustainable agriculture with particular reference to hill and mountain farming; organic farming-crop residue recycling and management; crop production under protective agriculture, precision agriculture; crop growth analysis.


Agron 502    Agronomy of major field crops                                                                            4+0

Geographical distribution, history, agro-ecological requirements, classification, morphology, phenology, physiology, varietal requirement and production technology of important cereals and millet crops (rice, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum and pearl millet); important grain legumes (chick pea, pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, horse gram, french bean, cowpea, ricebean, lentil and peas); oilseed crops (rapeseed and mustard, groundnut, soybean, sunflower, safflower, sesame, castor and linseed); fibre crops (cotton, jute, mesta and sunhemp); sugarcane; sugarbeet; tobacco and potato; crops of hill and mountainous regions (buckwheat, amaranths, finger millet, kodomillet, italian millet, common and barnyard millet, etc.); quality components and industrial uses of the main and byproducts and their post harvest handling for marketing.



Agron 503/VSF 524    Agronomy of vegetable crops                                                               3+0

Origin, history, distribution, adaptation, classification, varietal status, morphology, production technology including protected cultivation, quality components and post harvest handling of important vegetable crops : solanaceous crops viz. tomato, brinjal, chillies and bell pepper; cole crops viz. cabbage, cauliflower, sprouting broccoli, knol-khol, brussels sprouts, kale, chinese and red cabbage; root crops viz. radish, carrot, beet, turnip, colocasia, ginger, turmeric, yam, tapioca; bulb crops viz., onion and garlic; pea, beans, viz., french bean, broadbean, cowpea, clusterbean, winged bean, lima bean and dolichos bean; cucurbits viz. cucumber, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, sponge gourd, ridge gourd, pumpkin; lady's finger; salad crops viz. lettuce, celery, parsley; leafy vegetables viz. spinach, fenugreek, amaranth, bathu etc.; importance, scope and production of off-season vegetable crops under different agro-ecological situations in hills and mountainous regions.


Agron  504    Medicinal and aromatic crops                                                                            2+1

Importance of medicinal and aromatic plants in human health, national economy and related industries; classification of medicinal and aromatic plants according to botanical characteristics and uses; climate and soil requirements; cultural practices; yield  and important constituents of medicinal and aromatic plants - Plantago sp. (isabgol), Citronella, Palmarosa, Rauvolfia serpentina (sarpagandha), poppy, Asaphoetida (hing), Nux vomica, Rosadle sp, Mentha spicata (pudina), Basil (tulsi), Geranium nepalense (Lal jari), Viola odorata (Banafsha), Colchicum lutem (Hirantutiya), Swertia chirayata (chirayata), Bunium persicon (kala zira), Saussurea lappa (kuth) , Aconitum heterophyllum (patis), Lavender, Picrorhiza kurroa (kutki), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (lamjak), Asparagus adscendens (safed musli), Crocus sativus (kesar), Emblica officinalis (aonla), Terminalia sp, etc; general aspects of marketing of medicinal and aromatic plants.


Identification of medicinal plants based on morphological and seed characteristics; raising of herbarium of medicinal and aromatic plants; quality characters in medicinal and aromatic plants; methods of analysis of some essential oils and other chemicals of importance in medicinal and aromatic plants; visit to the nearby pharmaceutical laboratories.


Agron 505    Seed production agronomy                                                                     2+1

Agronomic practices for seed production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre and fodder crops; seed industry in the country and role of various agencies; seed morphology of different crops; seed multiplication chain; seed quality - purity, viability, dormancy, vigour; etc.; hybrid seed production; seed treatment; physiology of seed germination; seed testing for germination and seedling vigour; seed certification – processing, grading, storage; distribution and marketing; store grain pests.


Seed quality on the basis of purity and germination; roguing; detasseling; familiarization with seed processing equipments; materials and precautions for seed storage; comparison of farmer’s saved seed with certified seed.


Agron 506    Crop and seed physiology                                                                                              2+1

Physiology of seed development; dormancy - causes and measures to break seed dormancy; viability and germination of seed; changes in seed during storage; yield concepts and measurements; yield contributing components of crops - plant type, its morphological and physiological parameters; yield, photosynthesis and respiration in relation to dry matter production in crop community; distribution and translocation of photosynthates in relation to yield; productivity maximization and factors limiting the realization of potential yield; chemical growth regulators; stress physiology and resistance to drought, soil salinity and acidic conditions; crop quality.


Dormancy of crop-seeds; tests of dormancy; determining photosynthesis and respiration; test of deciding physical and physiological parameters of plant types; plant growth regulators and their use.


Agron 507    Systems research and crop Modeling                                                                2+1

Systems-definition, importance and system analysis; flow charts, input-output relationships; introduction to crop modeling-static descriptive and explanatory models; modeling techniques - state, rate and driving variables, feedbacks, relational diagrams, methods of integration; crop modeling - methods for crop-weather interaction, water and nitrogen stress effects, insect-pests interactions, data requirement and limitations.


Creation of input files; modeling techniques; hands on with crop models for assessment of growth and yield of crops in relation to water and nutrient management and climate change; exercises on calibration and validation of crop models; generating simulation guided management practices for yield maximization of different crops (to be offered in collaboration with related department(s)).


 Agron 511    Principles and practices of weed management                                                             2+1     

Classification and characteristics of weeds; special weed problems including aquatic and parasitic weeds; ecology and physiology of major weeds; ecophysiology of crop-weed competition including allelopathy; weed indices; principles and methods of weed control, concept of integrated weed management; weed control through bioherbicides, mycoherbicides and allelochemicals; herbicides - history, development and their classification; mode and mechanism of action of herbicides; herbicide selectivity, herbicide mixtures, adjuvants and safeners; degradation of herbicides in soils and plants; effect of herbicides in relation to environment; herbicide resistance in weeds and crops; weed management in major crops and cropping systems; weed shifts in cropping systems; control of weeds in non-cropped situations including grasslands, pastures, tea gardens and orchards in hills.



Identification of important weeds of different crops; preparation of weed herbarium; weed survey in crops and cropping systems; crop-weed competition studies; calculation and preparation of spray solutions of herbicides for high and low-volume sprayers; use of various types of spray pumps and nozzles; economics of weed control; herbicide resistance analysis in plant and soil; bioassay of herbicide resistance.


Agron 512    Mechanism of herbicide action                                                                           2+1

Historical background of herbicides; definitions in herbicide usage; classification of herbicides based upon their mode of action; mechanism of absorption and translocation of herbicides, their effect on growth and development, photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis; factors modifying the response of herbicides in plants; mechanisms of selectivity of herbicides; persistence of herbicides, their residual effect and methods of overcoming the residual effects of herbicides; mechanism of herbicide resistance; metabolism of herbicides; mechanism of action of adjuvants and herbicides antidotes; spray equipments and their use in herbicide application.


Familiarity with herbicides; application of various herbicides with different types of mechanism of action; study of mortality and nature of mortality of weeds; study of symptoms of phytotoxicity of herbicides in crop plants; study of persistence of herbicides in soil by bioassay techniques; study of movement of herbicides in soil


Agron 521    Principles and practices of water management                                      2+1

Water and its role in plants; water resources of India; major irrigation projects and extent of area and crops irrigated in India and different states; soil water movement and water availability, uptake, transport and transpiration in plants; soil-water-plant relationship; plant response to water stress; scheduling, depth and methods of irrigation with emphasis on sloping hill lands; micro irrigation system; fertigation; management of water in controlled environments and polyhouses; water use efficiency; water management of crops and cropping systems, in general, and in hills and mountains in particular; soil, plant and meteorological factors determining water needs of crops; crop plant  adaptation to moisture stress condition; quality of irrigation water; effect of saline water and soil salinity on plant-water-relation and management of crops; excess soil water and plant growth; water management in problem soils; water management in hills and cold desert soils; drainage requirements of crops and methods of field drainage; their layout and spacing, irrigability of lands.


Measurement of soil moisture using tensiometer, pressure plate and membrane; making of soil moisture characteristic curves; water flow measurement using different devices; determining soil profile moisture deficit and irrigation requirements; computation of water requirement of crops using modified Penman formula; measurement of water flux under saturated and unsaturated conditions; determination of infiltration rates and hydraulic conductivity.


Agron 522    Soil fertility management and fertilizer use                                                       2+1

Soil fertility and productivity; soil composition in relation to crop production-organic and inorganic constituents; essential plant nutrients; deficiency and toxicity symptoms of major and micro-nutrients and remedial measures; transformation and dynamics of major plant nutrients; kinds of fertilizers-straight, complex and bulk blended; methods of fertilizer application with special reference to sloping lands of hills and mountains; management of fertilizers in field crops, orchards and natural grasslands; crop response to nutrients; fertilizer use efficiency- agronomic, chemical and physiological; methods of increasing fertilizer use efficiency; nutrient interactions; fertilizer application in cropping systems-direct, residual and cumulative effects; integrated plant nutrient supply systems - organic manures, compost, green manure, vermicompost, biofertilizers, crop residue and inorganic fertilizers; sustainable agriculture and soil fertility; fertilizers and environment; fertilizer use in problem soils; soil moisture-nutrients interactions.


Determination of soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available N, P, K and S in soils; total N, P, K and S in plants; interpretation of interaction effect and computation of economic yield optima.


Agron 523    Management of problem soils                                                                            2+1

Origin, nature, properties and distribution of saline, sodic, calcareous, acid and water logged soils; plant response to soil reaction; nutrient imbalance in problem soils; extent of damage to crops due to different soil problems, crop tolerance to salinity, sodicity, acidity and water logging; reclamation of problem soils; role of soil amendments and soil drainage; agronomic practices in relation to problem soils; cropping patterns for problem soils.


Determination of soil pH, electrical conductivity, CEC, different anions and cations present in soil; calculation of lime requirement; visit to problematic areas to acquaint with production constraints.


Agron 524    Organic farming                                                                                                  2+1

Organic farming-concept and definition, its relevance to India, Himalayan regions and global agriculture; future prospects; land and water management-land use, minimum tillage, shelter zones, hedges, pasture management, agro-forestry, water use efficiency; soil fertility-nutrient recycling, organic residues, organic manures, composting, soil biota and decomposition of organic residues, earthworms and vermicompost, green manures, biofertilizers; farming systems-crop rotations, multiple and relay cropping systems, intercropping in relation to maintenance of soil productivity, control of weeds, diseases and insect pests; animal husbandry, dairy farming, sheep,  goat and piggery etc.;  integrated pest management-biological agents and pheromones, biopesticides; socio-economic impacts; marketing and export potential-inspection, certification, labelling and accreditation procedures; organic farming and national economy; recycling of organic resources in soil-plant-animal system-prospects and potential in hilly regions.


Aerobic and anaerobic methods of making compost, making of vermicompost; identification and nursery raising of important agroforestry trees and trees for shelter belts; efficient use of biofertilizers-technique of treating legumes seeds with Rhizobium cultures, use of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB cultures in field; visit to organic farms; quality standards, inspection, certification, labelling and accreditation procedures for farm produce from organic farms.


Agron 525    Dryland farming                                                                                      2+1

Definition, concept, characteristics of dryland and rain-fed farming; significance and dimension of dryland farming in Indian agriculture; constraints limiting crop production in dryland areas; characterization of environment for water availability; types of droughts; adaptation of crop plants to droughts; drought management strategies; preparation of appropriate crop plans for dryland areas; mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions; water harvesting concepts, techniques and practices; use of mulches, kinds, effectiveness and  economics; antitranspirants; soil and crop management techniques, tillage, seeding, fertilizer use with special reference to hilly areas; crop and varietal choice in general and in mountainous agriculture in particular; concept of watershed management and its application in India with special reference to hilly areas.


Rainfall probability analysis for crop planning; measurement of soil and water losses; in situ soil moisture conservation practices; mulches, including live mulches for minimizing evaporation losses; measures to manage prolonged drought during crop season; dry seeding practices due to delayed monsoon rains; visit to a dryland research centre; study of on-going watershed management programmes and agro forestry systems.


Agron 526    Soil conservation and watershed management                                      2+1

Soil erosion-definition, nature and extent of erosion; types of erosion, factors affecting erosion; soil conservation- definition, methods of soil conservation -conservation tillage, agronomic measures, contour cultivation, strip cropping, cover crops, vegetative barrier; improved dry farming practices; mechanical measures -bunding, gully control, bench terracing; role of grasses, pastures and forest trees in soil conservation; wind breaks and shelter belts; watershed management-definition, objectives, concepts, approach, components, steps in implementation of watershed management practices; development of cropping system for watershed areas; alternate  land use systems; agroforestry,  ley farming; jhum management- basic concepts, socio-ethnic aspects, its layout, drainage considerations and agronomic management; rehabilitation of abandoned  jhum lands and measures to prevent soil erosion.


Study of different types of soil erosion; field studies of different soil conservation measures; runoff and soil loss measurement; laying out runoff plot and deciding treatments; identification of different grasses and trees for soil conservation; visit to soil conservation research demonstration and training centre.


Agron 531    Fodder and forage crops                                                                                                2+1

Adaptation, distribution, varietal improvement, agro-techniques with specific reference to hilly and mountainous conditions and quality aspects including anti-quality factors of important fodder crops like teosinte, maize, jowar, bajra, guar, cowpea, oats, barley, brassica, berseem, shaftal, senji, lucerne, guinea grass and clovers; year round fodder production and management, preservation and utilization of forage and pasture crops; principles and methods of hay and silage making; chemical and biochemical changes, nutrient losses during hay and silage making and factors affecting quality of hay and silage; use of physical and chemical enrichments and biological methods for improving nutritive value of poor quality fodder; economics of forage cultivation. Grasslands of India and their importance, principles of grassland ecology, economic aspect of grasslands, their problems and management; improvement of grasslands; pasture grasses and legumes for improving soil fertility; importance and classification of pastures; establishment of pastures, their improvement and renovation; ley farming; agro-technology for pasture grasses and forage legumes and their seed production in different agro-ecological situation; cutting, grazing, nutrient and weed management in pastures and grasslands.  


Identification, collection and maintenance of forage species including problematic weeds from natural grasslands, pastures and forage crops of hill region; exercises on farm operations in raising fodder crops; exercises on canopy measurement, yield and quality estimates, viz. crude protein, NDF, ADF, lignin, silica, cellulose, etc. of various fodder and forages crops and anti quality components like HCN in sorghum and such factors in other crops; hay and silage making and economics of their preparation; storage of feeds.


Agron 541    Crop Ecology and Geography                                                                 2+0

Historical evolution, basic concepts and principles in crop ecology; response of crop plants to environment; factors (physical and social) determining crop distribution; classification of climate, bioclimatic zones; physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation  to the ecological optimum; photo and thermoperiodism; crop adaptation- geographic distribution of crop plants; adverse climatic effects and crop productivity; manipulation of development physiology of crops; crop  phenology in relation to ecogeographical conditions; agroecological niches of important crops in Himachal pradesh; agroclimatic zones and agro-ecological regions; effects of global climate change on crop production with special reference to Himachal Pradesh.


Agron 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                         1+0 

Agron 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                                                           0+1  

Agron 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                                       1-18 


Agron 601   Advances in crop production                                                                    3+0

Mineral nutrition of plants as related to microbial activity in growth medium; concepts and practices of minimum tillage; comparative study of changes in soil properties under minimum tillage, crop response to minimum tillage; stubble mulch farming in relation to crop yield; organic farming, recycling and organic wastes in cropping system; biological yield and harvest index in relation to crop yield; crop engineering and agronomic manipulation for higher production; quantitative relationship between plant population and crop yield; variation in yield of individual plant in community; yield and plant population in relation to soil productivity in community; profiles of  variations in growth factors in crop canopy; crop production on problem soils; advances in concepts of plant nutrients behaviour and fertilizer use and their impact on crop production.


Agron 611    Kinetics of herbicides in plant and soil                                                   3+0

Classification of herbicides; types of toxicity; absorption and translocation of herbicides; fate of herbicides in soil and plant parts, their degradation and decomposition kinetics; environmental effects on herbicidal toxicity, growth and abscissional responses to herbicides; morphogenetic effect of herbicides; effect of herbicides on plant composition and physiological processes.


Agron 612    Advances in weed crop competition                                                     2+0

Definition; competition in community; competition effect on plants, effect of competition duration; competition for nutrients, water, light and other environmental factors; effect of weed density on performance of important crops; specific aspects of weed competition; influence of various factors on competition; economic analysis; methodology of study of competition.


Agron 613    Weed  ecology                                                                                        2+1

Weeds in agro-ecosystems; origin of weeds, their behaviour and effects; ecological survey of principal weeds; weeds of crop fields, fallow land; aquatic and parasitic weeds; life cycle of weeds, weed environment, migration, establishment, vegetative growth and perennation; crop-weed interactions; phyto-sociology of weeds; competitive ability and factors affecting it; allelopathy; occurrence of inhibitors; methodology in vegetation study.


Weed identification; measurement of weed dominance; practice of classification methods; sampling techniques; study of community characteristics.


Agron 621    Advances in mineral nutrition of crop plants                                          2+0

Inorganic components of plants; macro and micro nutrient elements, their participation in plant metabolism; nutrient deficiency symptoms, occurrence and their prevention; physico-chemical and biological factors affecting nutrient availability; mineral nutrition of plants in relation to problem soils - water logged, acidic and eroded soils; effect of pH on plant nutrition; salt tolerance in plants; environment and mineral nutrition interactions; biochemical cycling of elements in nature; absorption and translocation of nutrient elements and factors affecting them.


Agron 622    Advances in fertilizer use in crop production                                                    2+0

Crop response to different fertilizers; soil test in relation to germination and crop growth; nutrient uptake pattern in different crops in relation to fertilization practices; preferential nutrient removal by different crops; partial productivity efficiency; manufacturing process of different fertilizers; fertilizer application in crop rotations; long term and carry over effects  on individual crops and crops in rotation; integrated nutrient supply and fertilizer management practices in crops and cropping systems; nitrification inhibitors and slow release fertilizers; bio-fertilizers, their scope and limitations; techniques of increasing fertilizer use efficiency; crop production under fertilizer constraints; fertilizers and their application practices in problem soils; maximization and optimization of crop yields.


                                Agron 623    Advances in soil-plant-water atmosphere relationship                                   3+0             

Energy concepts in soil-plant-water atmosphere; utilization of unconventional water for irrigation; physio-morphological behaviour of plants in  relation to excess water and  water stress conditions; soil physico-chemical properties in relation to water management; use of isotopes and radiation techniques in water potential, metabolic and hormonal responses of plants in relation to water; water use efficiency in relation to other inputs; crop growth and yield in relation to water availability; adaptation of plants to temperature and water variation; crops and cropping systems for limited water availability; soil -water plant relation under desert conditions;


Agron 631    Advances in agrostology                                                                          2+0

Competition among crop and pasture plants, introduction; nature of plant competition; influence of density on the plant community; associated growth of plant species and equilibria in mixture; competition between crops and associated plants; plant arrangement; competition for nutrients, water and light; leaf canopy and growth; leaf area fluctuation; leaf arrangement and competition for light; plant height and competition; competition interactions for two or more factors; competitive ability and yield; nutritive value of forage crops; components of nutritive value; digestibility of different forage crops; efficiency and utilization of digested nutrients; relationship between forage quality and yield; effect of processing on the components of forage nutritive value; the nutritive value of grazed forages; recent advances in rangeland and pasture management; agroforestry based forage production systems.


Agron 641    Advances in agrometeorology                                                                             2+1

Role of agrometeorology in crop distribution and planning; biological effects of solar radiation; concepts of heat balance, heat flux and heat transfer in soil and atmosphere systems; phenology in relation to climate; climate, its classification with reference to agriculture; concepts of agrotopoclimate, microclimate and phytoclimate; study of climate of soils, meadow and pasture, orchards, forests and green house; droughts and floods, their occurrence, prediction and influence on agriculture; advances in agrometeorological forecast systems; agrometeorological statistics and models. 


Measurement of solar radiation by various methods; measurement of heat in soil and atmosphere; working out heat units; preparation of climatological maps and their synoptic analysis.


Agron 642    Vegetation and hydrology                                                                                   3+0

Vegetation, its distribution in relation to climatic factors; hydrological cycle; atmospheric pressure; monsoon, its origin and types; water vapour, importance and distribution; clouds and their types; precipitation types; distribution and gauging; infiltration and factors affecting; run off process, estimation and factors affecting; erosion, causes, types, effect, principles and practices of erosion control; evaporation and evaportranspiration(ET); evaporation as weather phenomenon; measurement of ET, agronomic and  vegetative factors affecting ET; methods to reduce ET; evaporation from bare soil; evaporation at and between extremes of water supply; water use under  varying water supply conditions.


Agron 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                         1+0

Agron 692    Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                        0+1

Agron 700    Ph. D. Research                                                                                        1-18



Professors/ equivalent


Chander, S. N., Desh Raj, Kashyap, N. P., Kaul, B. K., Sharma, J. K., Suri, S. M., Thakur, A. K., Vaidya, D. N. 

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Bhagat, R. M, Chandel, R. S., Chandel, Y. S., Garg, R., Kumar, A., Mehta, P. K., Nirmala Devi, Sharma, D. C., Srivastava, A., Thakur, S. S.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Sharma, P. C., Sharma, P. K., Sharma, S. D., Sharma, S. K., Sood, A. K., Sood, P., Kumar, S., Verma, K. S.



M. Sc., Ph. D.

Fields of Specialization


Economic Entomology, Insect Toxicology, Apiculture.

Core Courses 


M. Sc. :  Ent 501, Ent 502, Ent 503, Ent 511, Ent 521

Ph. D. :  Ent 601, Ent 603, Ent 605, Ent 606


Ent 501     Insect Morphology                                                                                       1+1

Principles, utility and relevance of morphology; integument-structure, colours, outgrowths, appendages; process of moulting; formation of new cuticle, tanning functions; head-origin, definitive insect head; areas and sutures of insect head; appendages, antennae; mouthparts and modifications; tentorium; neck-sclerites; thorax-sclerites, sutures, ridges, areas of tergum, sternum and pleuron, pterothorax, their modifications; wings-origin, structure, development of wings, modifications, venation, articulation, wing coupling; legs-structure, articulation, modifications; abdomen-sclerites, pregenital, genital segments, appendages, genitalia, modifications; embryology and post embryonic development.


Insect collection from hill biodiversity; preparation of permanent and temporary mounts/slides; integumentary outgrowths, modifications and mouth parts, antennae, leg and wings; general morphology of grasshopper; head-sclerites, sutures, areas, types, tentorium; types of antennae; mouthparts and their modifications, grasshopper, honey bee, red cotton bug, thrips, butterfly, house fly, caterpillar; thorax-sclerites; wings types and venation; wing coupling; legs-types; abdomen-stinging organ in bees; genitalia,  post embryonic development .


 Ent 502    Insect Systematic                                                                                         1+1

 Relationship between systematics and taxonomy; zoological nomenclature and zoological   classification; history and importance of insect systematics, insect phylogeny, current classification; importance of taxonomy and levels of systematics with special reference to insect pests on agricultural crops, phenetics and cladistics; concept of species, sub-species, kinds of species and taxonomic categories; intraspecific categories and biotypes; procedures in identification and kinds of taxonomic keys; principles and application of zoological nomenclature, international code of zoological nomenclature; zoogeographical regions and ethics in taxonomy, paleontology, fossil insect orders;  taxonomic publications;  description of new taxa.


Taxonomic collections of hill areas, curation of insects   preparation of slides for making illustrations; illustrating taxonomic characters; photography of insects and their parts; identification of insects with the help of taxonomic keys; study of variation in a population; preparation of taxonomic keys;  morphometric analysis; repository of insect collections; website, visits to museums.


Ent 503    Insect Anatomy, Physiology and Nutrition                                                     2+1

Scope and importance of insect anatomy and physiology; anatomy and physiology of digestive; and reproductive systems; anatomy and physiology of muscles; metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogenous compounds; metamorphosis; importance of insect nutrition; nutrition of phytophagous insects; stored grain and beneficial insects; role of vitamins, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals and other food constituents in insect nutrition; extra and intra cellular microorganisms and their role in physiology; food preferences in insects; sensory organs and insect behaviour.


Dissection of insects to study comparative modifications in different systems, grasshopper, bugs, flies, bees, beetles, moths; experiments to study gas exchange, specific gravity and volume of haemolymph, excretory efficiency and excretory products, digestibility and digestive enzymes, demonstrating hormonal and pheromonal activity in insects; formulations and preparation of artificial diets for rearing insects.


Ent 511    Insect Ecology                                                                                                 1+1

Basic concepts – population and environment; population regulation - natural control and current theories; characteristics of population; biotic potential and environmental resistance; stable age distribution; population dynamics; dispersal and migration; tropism and kinesi; diapauses, hibernation and aestivation; effect of environmental factors on distribution and abundance of insects; tritrophic interaction; food chain and ecological succession; ecological indicators.


Measurement of micro-environment; concepts of life table and constructions of life tables; computer simulation, modeling; estimates of population density; sampling methods and plans; estimation of dispersion and migration.


Ent 512    Integrated Pest Management                                                                        2+1

Distribution, identification, host-range, nature; crop losses, life cycle and pest management in major crops of mountainous regions; the concept and history of pest management; tools of pest management; ecological and socio-economic aspects, cost/benefit and risk/benefit ratios; cultural, biological, chemical, genetic, legal and other control tactics and their integration for pest management; sampling and measuring the economic levels of damage, economic injury level and economic threshold; analysis and modeling for pest management and case histories; decision making for need based pest management; incidence, movements and succession of crop pests as influenced by biotic and abiotic factors; key factor and time series analysis in pest management.


 Calculation of diversity index and economic thresholds; demonstration of IPM technology in field crops; scouting; impact analysis; IPM in protected cultivation system.


Ent 513 Insect Vectors of Plant Viruses and Other Pathogens                                      1+1

Important insect vectors and their characteristics; mouth parts and feeding processes of important insect vectors; transmission of plant viruses and other pathogens by aphids; leaf hoppers, whiteflies; beetles ; thrips, psyllids ; mites and mealy bugs.


Identification of common vectors of plant pathogens; aphids; leaf hoppers; whiteflies; mites; thrips; beetles; nematodes; culturing and handling of vectors; demonstration of virus transmission through vector aphids; leafhoppers; whiteflies; beetles; nematodes; isolation and their feeding behaviour.


Ent 514    Advance Techniques in Plant Protection                                                     0+2

Pest control equipment, principles, operation, maintenance, selection; application of pesticides and biocontrol agents, seed dressing, soaking, root-dip treatment, dusting, spraying (low and high volume sprayers); application through irrigation water; soil disinfestations; soil fumigation; sterilization, solarisation, deep ploughing (summer), flooding( stagnant water treatment); techniques to check the spread of pest through seed, bulbs, corms, cuttings and cut flowers; physical cleaning, cutting and removal of infected parts, hot water treatment;  use of light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to study insect damage; protein isolation from the pest/pathogen and host plant and its quantification; using spectrophotometer and molecular weight determination using SDS PAGE; DNA isolation from the pest/pathogen and host plant and its quantification in relation to resistance in crop plants; RFLP and RAPD studies of the isolated DNA; use of tissue culture techniques in plant protection; computer application for predicting/forecasting pest/disease attack and identification; statistical designs for plant protection experiments.


Ent 515     Biological Control                                                                                         2+1

Philosophy, scope, history and importance of biological control; theoretical and empirical basis of biological control; parasitism and predatism, phases of parasitism; important parasitic and predatory groups of insects and insect pathogens; ecological basis of biological control; methods of colonization, recovery and evaluation; introduction, culture, establishment and management of natural enemy population; biological control of weeds; role of natural enemies in integrated pest management with special reference to hill agriculture; microbial pesticides; biological control in protected evaluation system.


Identification of common natural enemies (parasitoids, predators and phytophagous insects) of crop pests and weeds; rearing of eggs, egg-larval, larval and pupal parasitoids and their laboratory hosts; rearing of common predators and phytophagous natural enemies of weeds; field recovery of parasitoids; culturing and identification of common insect pathogens.


Ent 516    Insect Resistance in Crop Plants                                                                                           1+1

History and importance; ecological and genetic resistance; mechanisms of plant resistance to insects; factors that affect the expression or permanence of resistance; role of secondary plant substances in host selection; chemo-reception; phagostimulants; peculiarities of plant reaction to pest injury; methods of investigating pest resistance; genetics of pest resistance; source of plant resistance; genetically modified plants for pest resistance; resistance to insects in major crops.


Use of Planimeter; graphic technique and choice tests for measuring resistance; measurement of plant characters and working out their correlations with pest resistance; testing of resistance in important crops; bioassay of plant extracts of susceptible/resistant varieties; demonstration of antibiosis, preference and non-preference.


Ent  517    Storage Pests and Their Management                                                                     1+1

Storage losses (seed and food) due to insects, mites, rodents, birds and moulds; sources of infestation, biology of major stored grain pests found in the storages of mountain regions; significance of temperature and moisture in the development of moulds and insect populations; biochemical changes in stored commodities due to pest infestation;  principles of safe grain storage; storage structure with emphasis on the structures used in hilly regions, warehouse management; management and safe use of pesticides in stored commodities; preservation of seeds on long term basis, seed and seed health law, quarantine laws; protection of stored grains and seeds by radiation.


Detection methods, estimation of losses; identification of pests of stored commodities and their damage; detection of insect infestation and estimation of storage losses; detection of microflora and grains; determination of grain moisture; study of different storage structures; culturing of stored grain pests; bag and seed treatment and fumigation of stored commodities; visit to grain market, IGSI and commercial silos.


Ent 518     Forest Entomology                                                                                        1+1

Important insects in forest ecosystems; important insect pests of forest plants /trees, their bio-ecology, nature of damage, distribution and management strategies; assessment of damage by forest pests; ecological considerations of pest management in tropical and temperate regions.


Detection of Insect damage in forest trees and their products; collection, preservation and identification of insect pests of forest plants.


Ent 519     Applied Acarology                                                                                                    1+1

Historical account; methods of collection, rearing and preservation of mites and ticks; general morphology and classification of acarines up to family level; bionomics and control of mite-pests of crops, tree plants, ornamentals, green house/playhouse crops, stored grains, mushrooms and honeybees; management of mite pests with emphasis on crops of hilly areas.


Morphology of mites and ticks; identification of important mite-pests and their predators: collection, rearing, preservation and mounting of mites; estimating mite population; methods of testing pesticides against mites; rearing of predatory mites; chaetotaxy and morphometric analysis of mites.


Ent 520      Soil Arthropods and Their management                                                                 1+1

Soil arthropods and their classification, habits and identification with special reference to hill regions; estimation of populations; sampling and extraction methods; role of soil arthropods in litter breakdown and humus formulation; harmful and beneficial soil arthropods  and other soil invertebrates.


Sampling and extraction methods of soil fauna; estimation and assessment of soil population; identification of various types of soil fauna; techniques and culturing soil invertebrates; study of various harmful and beneficial soil invertebrates and microorganism.


Ent 521     Toxicology of Insecticides                                                                                        2+1

History and principles of toxicology; insecticides-their classification; mode of action, structure activity relationships; metabolism and toxicity; synergism, antagonism; systemic and selective insecticides; principles and application of bioassay and insect toxicological studies; resistance in hill and mountainous agro eco region crop pests to insecticides; insecticide residue-their significance, analysis of residue in hill region crops, fruits, honey and milk and environmental implications; diagnosis and treatment of insecticide poisoning;  plant products; development of new insecticides from plant species of hilly region, formulations, mixtures; application techniques.


Preparation of laboratory formulations and standard concentrations of insecticides; bioassay technique; estimation of LD50, LD90 by Probit analysis, testing of relative toxicity and synergism; toxicological statistics; sampling for insecticide residue, their extraction, cleanup and estimation by colorimetric, enzyme inhibition and chromatographic techniques; compatibility of pesticides, phyototoxicity, toxicity to beneficial insects, honey bees, predators, pollinators and silkworm.


Ent 531    Honey Bee Management                                                                                 I+I

Introduction to apiculture; bee biology, natural enemies and seasonal management; ecology and behaviour of bees; methods of communication and reproduction; bees as pollinators; bee-keeping equipments, honey extraction and bee products, beekeeping as industry in India.


Identification of bee species; apicultural equipments; colony examination, bee activities, seasonal management, colony multiplication, queen rearing, control of bee enemies and diseases, colony records, productions/collection, use and testing of bee products.


Ent 532    Insects of Industrial Importance (Sericulture/Lac Culture)                             1+1            

Sericulture: history, development and organization of silk Industry; food plants of silkworms; their cultivation and management; mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms and their systematics; bio-ecology of mulberry silkworm; silkworm rearing technology; diseases, predators and parasitoids of silkworms and their management; introductory lac culture.


Propagation and layout, pruning, harvesting of mulberry; identification of mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms; morphology and anatomy of mulberry silkworm; rearing of mulberry silkworm; identification of various diseases, predators and parasitoid of silkworms; identification, life stages of different lac insects.


Ent 541    Introductory Nematology                                                                               1+1

History of Nematology; economic importance of nematodes; general morphology of nematodes; nematode symptomatology; interactions of nematodes with other micro organisms, principles and methods of nematode control; diagnosis, biology, symptomatology and control of important plant parasitic nematodes.


Sampling, extractions of nematodes from soil and plant parts; killing, fixing and preparation of temporary & permanent mounts; extraction of cysts from soil and preparation of vulval cone; identification of important nematodes and their disease symptoms; field application of nematodes.


Ent 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                                          1+0 

Ent 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                                            0+1  

Ent 600     M. Sc. Research                                                                                             1-18 


Ent 601     Advances in Insect Pest Management                                                                      1+0

Special features of insect pests in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions; latest approaches in insect control under these conditions; strategies for management of insecticide resistance in key pests; advanced techniques of pesticide application; development of computer based pest forecasting and IPM module.


Ent 602     Advances in Insect Physiology                                                                     2+0

Physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle, chitin-protein interactions in various cuticles, penetration of insecticides through cuticle; detailed physiology of nervous and endocrine systems, transmission of nerve impulses, neurotransmitters and modulators, insect cholinergic system, effect of insecticides on the nervous system; role of hormones in insect development and reproduction; reproductive strategies of insect pests and natural enemies; digestive enzymes, digestive physiology in phytophagous, wood boring and wool feeding insects; physiology of excretion and  osmoregulation, role of  malpighian tubules and papilli in excretion, water conservation mechanisms; insect behaviour, chemosensory mechanisms, physiology of receptor cell, electroantennograms; semi chemicals, pheromones and their specificity; hormone analogues and insect growth regulators, chitin synthesis inhibitors-their use in IPM; insect venoms and toxins, defence mechanisms, detoxification of pesticides; ultra structure of nerve cells, epidermal cells, gland cells; neuropeptides, proctolin, adipokinetic hormone, eclosion hormone, diuretic hormone; physiology of diapause. 


Ent 603    Advanced Insect Ecology                                                                              1+1

Life system approach to the study of insect population; key factors in population dynamics and their manipulation; changing environment and pest populations; disruption of diversity and stability of insect species due to pesticide application; predictive models and forecasting of pest outbreaks; sequential sampling; ecological aspects of pest management; remote sensing; social life and thermoregulation in insects; bio-climatic laws.  


Sampling techniques; key factor analysis; simulation of crop losses and population dynamics; spatial distribution.


Ent 604    Advanced Insect Systematics                                                                        1+1

Hierarchy in classification, concepts in supraspecific and infraspecific categories; taxonomic characters-morphological, cytological, biochemical, parasitological, geographical, numerical; hybridization and speciation; evolution and phylogeny; taxonomic publications; identification of taxonomic descriptions of new taxa; numerical traxonomy, cladistics and dendrograms. 


Scanning and electron microscope in aid of taxonomy; demonstration of non morphological taxonomic characters - cytological, biochemical, molecular, systematics - PCR, RFLP, etc.; numerical taxonomy - cluster/discriminant function analysis, dendrograms; demonstration of examples for application of law of priority, homonymy, synonymy; identification of taxonomic characters in important agricultural pests writing publications using taxonomic procedures.


Ent 605    Advances in Biological Control                                                                     1+1

Techniques for evaluation of effectiveness of natural enemies; biological control agents as components of integrated control; landmarks in biological control; population models; mass production, standardization, packaging, storage, application and release of natural enemies; formulation and safety testing of insect pathogens; genetically engineered microbes, predators and parasitoids; resistance and immunity to pathogens; chemical ecology and biological control.    


Mass culturing of biological control agents; testing side effects of pesticides on natural enemies; effect of semi chemicals on natural enemies.


Ent 606    Advances in Toxicology of Insecticides                                                                     1+1

New insecticides molecules; environmental factors affecting toxicity with special reference to low temperature; structure-activity relationship of insecticides; comparative metabolism and toxic dynamics of insecticides; mode of action and metabolism of new insecticides; insecticide selectivity, interaction and mechanisms/bases of resistance; developments in biorational insecticides and biopesticides;  pesticide residue analysis by immunoassay; methods of identifying new botanicals and their evaluation; neem isolates; isolates from other  plant species of hill region.


Experiments on mode of action of insecticides; use of chromatographic and tracer    techniques in studies on insecticide metabolism; biochemical and biological techniques for detection of insecticides resistance in insects; analysis of bound and conjugate insecticide residue in plants and animals; extraction and assay of biopesticides.


 Ent 607    Quarantine in Entomology                                                                                       1+0

Definitions of insect pest, insecticide and transgenic as per Govt. Notification, relative importance; insect pest quarantine-domestic and international; quarantine restrictions in the movement of agricultural produce, seeds and planting material; case histories of exotic pests and their status; Pest Risk Analysis; good laboratory practices for insecticide laboratories, acts related to registration of insecticides, transgenic, Insecticide act, 1968; environmental acts, Industrial safety acts; registration procedures, special requirements for biopesticide registration; import and export of biological control agents; WTO regulations, non tariff barriers, sanitary  and phytosanitary issues in export of food materials, measures for achieving sanitation; APEDA and its role, techniques to detect hidden infestation, VHT and other safer techniques of disinfection.


Ent 608    Molecular Approaches in Entomology Research                                                       1+1

Introduction to molecular biology, techniques used in molecular biology, DNA and RNA analyses in insects-transcription and translation mechanisms, DNA recombinant technology, identification of genes/nucleotide sequences for characters of interest; genes of interest in entomological research-maker genes for sex identification, neuropeptides, JH esterase, BT toxins and venoms, chitinase, CPTI.  Lectins and proteases; insect gene transformation; biotechnology in relation to silkworms and honey bees;  introduction of lectin genes for pest suppression;  DNA finger printing for taxonomy and phylogeny;  DNA based diagnostics; insect immune systems in comparison to vertebrates;  molecular basis of metamorphoses; BT transgenic technology and implications; molecular biology of baculoviruses, insecticide resistance;  molecular aspects of insect diseases; insect hosts, parasitoids and host plant interaction.


Isolation of DNA/RNA; purity determinations; base pair estimation; agarose gel electrophoresis; restriction mapping of DNA; demonstration of PCR, RFLP and RAPD techniques.



Ent 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                              1+0

Ent 692    Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                             0+1

Ent 700     Ph. D. Research                                                                                           1-18                             


Extension Education


Professors/ equivalent


Sohi, J. S., Thakur, V. S.

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Choubey, A. K.


Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Katoch, A., Kumar, A., Singh, V. P.




M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Agricultural Extension

Core Courses                      


Ext 501, Ext 502, Ext 503, Ext 504, Ext 511      



Ext 501 Fundamentals of Rural Sociology                                                                  1+1

Rural Sociology: definition, scope, importance; sociological concepts: society, community, rural social institutions, association; social change and adoption of new technology with particular reference to hill agriculture; culture: concept, types, cultural lag; social stratification: concept, structure, role; groups; types; socialization, role in personality development; leadership, types and its implications in hill development.


Status of social, cultural and technological changes in society; studies on belief system, exploring group dynamics and leadership pattern in villages, rural social institutions (panchayats, co-operatives etc.); social sanctions, values and deviance-cases, assignments.


Ext 502 Psychology of Human Behaviour                                                                                 2+0

Psychology: meaning, scope and importance in extension education; behaviour and its modification; methods of influencing human behaviour; perception: concept, laws and selectivity in perception, sensory factors in perception, importance of perception in extension work; attitude - functions, attitude change, formation of stereotypes and prejudices; motivation: concept, theories and types, techniques of motivating farm people; learning - principles, indicators, theories of learning and experiential learning; personality and individual differences; personality as a set of traits and personality as the self, Roger's self-theory, Maslow's self-actualisation theory; emotion - types of emotional response, theories and role of emotion in regulating human behaviour; problem-solving and decision-making.


Ext 503 Fundamentals of Extension Education                                                                        2+0

The emergence of extension education as science; extension: an international terminology problem; analysis of definitions of extension; principles, philosophy, ethics and objectives of extension education; extension education as a discipline and profession; related professions; role of extension education in hill development; historical and emerging perspective of agricultural extension; integrated functioning of teaching, research and extension in ICAR and SAUs systems; participatory extension and research; extension system  in India and its linkages with National Agricultural Research System; gender issues in rural development with special reference to hills and mountains; privatisation of extension.


Ext 504 Research Methodology in Extension Education                                              2+1

Concepts of science: aims, characteristics and classification; research: meaning, types; social research: objectives, problems of objectivity, theory and facts; selection and identification of a problem:  sources, steps, analysis; designs of social research: purpose, criteria and types - random, observation study, exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic, experimental, survey and case study method design; hypothesis: meaning, utility, sources, types, attributes of good hypothesis, development and testing; research variables, types of variables; sampling techniques; tools of data collection: interview schedule, questionnaire, observation; projective technique, sociometry, scales; reliability and validity of a test or scale; data analysis; tabulation, coding, statistical tools and scientific report writing.


Identification of research problem, objective, hypothesis; development of research tools and calculation of reliability and validity of a scale or test.


Ext 511 Communication Process                                                                                  2+1

Basics of communication: meaning, nature, purpose and levels of communication; language in communication; para-language; non-verbal communication user modes, oral communication; communicator: role, qualities, behaviour; message design: dimension, characteristics, treatment, effectiveness and distortion; channels of communication: meaning, classifications, selection, credibility, use; audience analysis; feedback: roles, empathy, homophily, heterophily; improving oral and written communication; communication skills; fidelity, competence, credibility; theories and models of communication; development communication; barriers in communication, strategy of communication with reference to hill situations; communication technology and its implications.


Development of messages for verbal communication, presentation skills, writing skills; exercises on distortion of communication message; development of tool to study communication network with reference to hill farmers.


Ext 512 Visual and Graphic Communication                                                                1+1

Role of visuals in communication; characteristics of visuals; functions of visuals and graphics; theories of visual perception; classification of visuals: visual formats, selection of visuals; designing message for visuals: designing and layout of visual elements, balancing; graphic formats and devices, typology; presentation of scientific data: general and exact data: principles of production of visuals, low cost visuals, photographs, reprographic visuals, PC based visuals, and digitized video materials in multi-media production; designing visuals for print and TV/Video media; pre-testing and evaluation of visuals.


Preparation of low-cost non-projected visuals; preparation of projected visuals; designing and layout of visuals for charts, posters, flash cards etc; generating computer-aided presentation graphics; scanning of visuals and evaluation of visual assignments.


Ext 513 Communication Media and Information Technology                                      1+1

Media use in agricultural development; classification of media; media planning in extension projects: selection process of media use, essential and optional characteristics, system approach to media selection and use; enhancement in learning experiences through different projected and non-projected media including multimedia presentation; principles of production of audio and video tapes; production of OHP transparencies; photographic slides, computer aided slides, technology for conversion of magnetic tape to digital formats and vice-versa; application and production of multimedia; internet application tools and web technology; production of web-based instruction materials and e-book; networking system of information; problems and prospects of new communication and information technology.


Production of communication material; digital printing; digital editing: audio/video editing and multimedia production, integrated computer-aided on-screen presentation of technology; internet application; e-mail, voice mail and web tools technologies, web based instructions; e-book and multimedia production; handling and maintenance of new communication technologies.


Ext 521 Diffusion and Adoption of Farm Innovations                                                    1+1

Basics of   diffusion: meaning, elements, types; some traditions of research on diffusion, contributions and shortcomings of diffusion research; innovation development process; adoption process: meaning, stages, shades of agreement, symbolic and use adoption, over adoption; innovation decision process; innovativeness, adopter's categories, attributes of farm innovations, rate of adoption; farm innovation decisions: optional, collective, authority and contingent; consequences of adoption of farm innovation; opinion leadership: characteristics, measurement, roles.


Methods of identification of farm leaders; to study the mechanism of working through leaders; content analysis of adoption studies, measurement of adoption and rate of adoption of farm innovations.


Ext 531 Training for Human Resource Development                                                    2 +1

Training and education: concept, meaning and relationship; pedagogy and andragogy: concept and assumptions; human resource development: concept, dimensions, needs and priorities; basic assumptions underlying HRD; training typology, approaches and strategies; conceptual model of training; training needs assessment (TNA); training objectives setting; planning, designing and conducting training programmes; monitoring, evaluation and follow-up of training; preparation, selection and use of training methods; training institutions in India and facilities available for HRD.


Exercises on TNA, training designs and curriculum development; exercises in using selected training methods in simulated and real life; evaluation of training programmes; visit to training and development institutions (like KVK) to share their experiences on different aspects of training.


Ext 541 Management in Extension                                                                               2+1

Management: concept, nature and scope with special reference to extension organisations; types of managers; the management process; management level; managerial roles and skills ; principles and theories of management; dimensions of agricultural extension management system; types of extension organisations; functions of management in extension organisations; skills in effective management of extension and rural development organisations; planning: concept, planning at different levels, types of plans; strategic planning: importance, steps and techniques involved; management by objectives as applicable to extension organisations; decision-making; organising; staffing; leading and influencing: basic considerations in motivation, approaches to motivation; concept and style of leadership; interpersonal and organisational communication; techniques of transectional analysis (TA) for improving interpersonal communication; coordination; controlling; reporting; budgeting; contemporary issues and challenges of extension management; team building; creative problem-solving techniques; stress management practices; total quality management (TQM); time management practices; development of management information system (MIS) for extension organisations at various levels.


Development of strategic planning; simulation exercises and field practical to study leadership, motivation, communication, team building, time management and MIS; discussion with various levels of extension managers in identification of extension management problems.


Ext 542 Entrepreneurship Development                                                                                   1+1

Concept, need, scope and prospects of entrepreneurship development; problems of agricultural entrepreneurship and value-orientation for entrepreneurship; approach and experiences in entrepreneurial development in India; entrepreneurial characteristics and motives; motivation theories; locus of control; creativity; risk taking and risk management; project designing; support and service organisations and Govt. policies; planning, understanding, business opportunities; product identification and market survey; enterprise launching; enterprise management; management skills; marketing strategy; survival and sustenance; gender issues in entrepreneurship.


Identification of enterprises; simulation games and motivational exercises for developing entrepreneurial abilities; achievement motivation: self-efficacy, risk taking, achievement planning; project planning; financial management; interface with successful entrepreneurs.


Ext 551 Programme Planning in Extension                                                                  1+1

Importance, principles, steps and process in developing sound extension programmes; organisational structure for planning at various levels; formulation of five year plans in India; participatory planning process: RRA, PRA and PLA techniques; changing roles of  panchayats in programme implementation; execution of various programmes; project formulation and its appraisal; project management techniques: CPM and PERT; evaluation of extension programme.


Preparation of plans and project/ programme proposals; exercises on participatory methods-RRA and PRA, exercises on PERT, visit to development organisations.


Soc 501            General Sociology                                                                                                       3+0

Nature and scope of sociology; society; difference between industrial, agrarian and tribal societies; community; difference between community and society; community sentiments; elements of association; differences between association and society; association and community; elements of institution; importance of institution; difference between institution and association; aspects of interaction; conjunctive and disjunctive processes of social interaction; human groups; group integration or cohesiveness; classification of groups; means of social control; social control in modern society; social change; types of social change; factors affecting social change; stimulants and barriers of social change; social problems; classification of social problems; causes of social problems.


Soc 502            Sociology of Economic Development                                                              3+0

Introduction to the concept of development; indicators of development; characteristics of underdevelopment; alternative indicators of development; theories and major issues in development; need and nature of the process of economic and social development;  development vis-à-vis environment; environmental degradation; environmental pollution; governmental and voluntary action on environmental pollution; introduction to the concept of wasteland; causes of land degradation; extent and types of wasteland; role of forestry in reclaiming wasteland; wasteland development schemes; concept of social forestry; strategy and scope of social forestry.


Soc 511            Rural Sociology and Rural Social system                                                       3+0

A general view of the sociology of rural life; physical structure of rural society: patterns of rural settlement, rural resources, population; social structure of rural society: organisation, ecological entities, groups, collectivities; rural social institutions with particular reference to India; analysis of various institutions and agencies as social system; characteristics of rural society; social stratification; value and value systems; social interaction and processes; social change: dimensions of social change, general conditions of and factors in social change, social organisations.


Soc 512            Impact of Science and Technology on Rural Development                            3+0

Concept of rural development; basic elements and objectives of development; strategies of development; dogmas in development; rural development and change; culture as a determinant of social change; technological explanation of social change; problems of human adjustment in a changing cultural scenario and cultural lag; significance of science and technology for rural development; technology missions and rural development; factors associated with science and technology utilisation.


Ext  591            M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                    1+0

Soc 591            M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                    1+0

Ext 592             Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                   0+1

Ext 600 M. Sc. Research                                                                                               1-18



Associate Professors/ equivalent


Badyal, J. M., Bhan, S.,  Upadhyay, S. K.



Minor and Supporting



Hort 501    Fundamentals of Fruit Production                                                              2+1

Plant growth and development; fruit bud formation and environmental factors related to fruit production; photoperiodism and vernalization; dormancy and rest period; pollination and fruit set; processes of development and maturity of fruit; internal and external factors associated with unfruitfulness and methods of inducing fruitfulness; principles and practices of training and pruning; alternate bearing; dwarfing rootstocks; physiology of dwarfing; high density plantings special systems of training and pruning; fruit thinning; principles and methods of irrigation; nutrition-nutrient classification and their role; manures and fertilizers.  


Study of flower and inflorescence; pollination and fruit set; practice in training and pruning; systems and methods of irrigation; fertilizer application techniques; observations on fruit growth and fruit drop; foliar sampling techniques for analysis of N, P, K, Ca and Mg.


Hort 502    Propagation of Fruit Plants                                                                                    2+1

Principles and methods of propagation; physiological and anatomical aspects of rooting and grafting/budding/layering; rootstock-scion relationships; root-stocks for important fruit crops; graft incompatibility; mist propagation; use of plant regulators and other substances in propagation; special plant growth structures.   


Practices in different methods of plant propagation such as grafting; budding; layering and stooling; rooting of cuttings with growth regulators.


Hort 503    Commercial Fruits of  Hilly Areas                                                                           3+1

Important commercial fruits of hilly areas; climatic zones of hilly areas of India and Himachal Pradesh; area and production of important fruits such as pome, stone fruits, nuts, kiwi, persimmon, pomegranate, grapes, strawberry; mango, guava, papaya, citrus and litchi; propagation methods; planting and after care; cultural practices-orchard soil management; manuring; irrigation; weed control; training and pruning; harvesting; grading and packing; special problems of production. 


Identification of important varieties; species and rootstocks; physico-chemical analysis of fruits; important cultural practices related to commercial fruits; visit to leading commercial orchards.


Hort 504    Growth Regulators in Fruit Crops                                                                            1+1

History; nomenclature and role of growth regulators-auxins; gibberellins; cytokinins; inhibitors and growth retardants; application of growth regulators in various growth and development processes such as dormancy; flowering; fruit set; fruit development; fruit ripening and colour development; fruit thinning and control of fruit drop.


Preparation of solutions of growth regulators and their application during flowering; fruit set; colour development; fruit quality and harvesting; effect of retardants on vegetative growth.


Hort 511    Temperate Fruits                                                                                        2+1

Introduction; origin; geographical distribution; classification; climatic and soil requirement and varietal description; crop improvement; propagation and rootstock; soil and orchard management practices; training and pruning; nutrient and fertilizer applications; irrigation; weed control etc., crop harvesting; special problems of production of main fruits grown in the hilly region namely apple; pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, almond, pecan, walnut, kiwi, strawberry, persimmon, pests; diseases and their management, etc. 


Identification and morphological description of different cultivars; techniques for quality improvement; training and pruning of fruit plants; orchard management practices; visit to various fruit growing zones and leading orchards in the state; acquaintance with important diseases and pests and their control.


Hort  512    Sub Tropical and Tropical fruits                                                                 2+1

Introduction; classification; nomenclature and varietal status of citrus; mango, litchi, grape, guava, papaya, ber, banana, loquat, pomegranate, aonla, datepalm and pineapple; climatic and soil requirements; propagation and rootstocks; soil management practices; nutrition and irrigation; weed control; maturity and harvesting; pests; diseases and their management.  


Morphological and taxonomic descriptions; soil management practices; nutritional disorders and their control; acquaintance with major diseases; pests and their control measures; visit to orchards.


Hort  513    Orchard Soil and Water Management                                                        3+1

Orchard soil management systems; merits and demerits; mulching; inter and cover cropping; chemical weed control; their functions and significance in orchard economy; soil management in relation to nutrient absorption and water uptake; effect on soil environment; moisture conservation; soil organisms, soil properties; mycorrhizal fungi; their role in fruit production; soil management systems; effect of soil organic matter on physiochemical properties; factors affecting water requirements of fruit trees; response of fruit crops to different water regimes; principles and methods of irrigation; criteria for scheduling irrigation of fruit trees; irrigation systems adopted in fruit cultivation; response of fruit trees to different water regimes.  


Layout of different systems of orchard soil management, use of mulch materials and herbicides in controlling weeds and conserving soil moisture; determination of organic matter and study of organisms in orchard soils; systems of irrigation in orchards and nurseries.


Hort 514    Nutrition of Fruit Crops                                                                                2+2

Historical background; modern concept in nutrition; criteria of essentiality of nutrient elements; classification of plant nutrients and their role; nutritional requirements of fruit crops; symptoms of deficiency and toxicity in fruit crops; corrective measures; climatic and soil conditions promoting nutrient availability / deficiencies in plants; nutritional disorders; effect of nutrient elements on growth; cropping and quality; nutrient uptake and translocation; interrelationship of elements; leaf sampling techniques and nutrient standards; manures and fertilizers; time and mode of fertilizer application; foliar nutrition.



Field identification of hunger signs in fruit crops; nutrient culture studies; leaf sampling techniques; preparation of samples and determination of macro and micro nutrients in plants; treatment of micro-nutrient disorders in the orchard; field identification for mineral deficiency.


Hort 515    Dry Land Horticulture                                                                                   2+0

Introduction and scope for dry land horticulture; agroclimatic features of arid and dry temperate zones; special features of tree species such as pear; ber, fig, aonla, datepalm, phalsa, jamun, karunda, pomegranate, guava, sapota, mango, walnut, pecan and olive; plant-soil-water relations; water stress and plant growth; control of water loss through transpiration and evaporation; techniques of conserving soil and water use-efficiency; orchard development and management practices suited for dryland horticulture.


Hort 516    Plant Propagation and  Nursery Management                                            3+1

Introduction and prerequisites of an ideal fruit nursery; selection of site and layout of nursery; preparation of seed and nursery beds; seed collection; extraction and storage; seed germination; causes of poor germination and pre-sowing treatments for improving germination; micro-propagation and its importance; propagation structures; mist chamber; green houses and glass houses; selection of mother trees and collection of scion wood for propagation; clonal propagation of rootstock of different fruit species; recent advances in the propagation in fruit crops; seedling propagation; apomixis; dwarfing mechanism; graft incompatibility; use of plant growth regulators in plant propagation; management of fruit nursery-irrigation; fertilization; weed control; insect pest and disease control; rouging; fruit nursery act and the nursery standards; packing and labeling of nursery plants; maintenance of nursery records and economics of commercial nursery production.


Preparation of seed and nursery beds; pre-sowing seed treatment to improve seed germination; selection of mother trees; practice in various plant propagation methods viz. grafting, budding; layering and cutting; etc., use of plant growth regulators; structure for mist-propagation; green house and glass house; maintenance of nursery records; visit to nurseries.


Hort 517    Fruit Growth and Development                                                                  2+1

Phases of fruit growth; biosynthesis of auxins; gibberellins cytokinins; abscissic acid and ethylene, mode of action and transport; role in developmental process such as juvenility; senescence and flowering; photoperiodic effects and vernalization; growth regulators in flowering; physiology of flowering in fruit trees; fruit set; fruit thinning and fruit drop; parthenocarpy; role of seeds and growth substances in fruit growth; physiological factors; affecting fruit drop; role of ethylene in fruit ripening; dormancy of buds and seeds; inhibitors and growth retardants; chemicals in plant growth and development.


Application of growth regulators in breaking of seed dormancy; regulation of flowering; fruit set; fruit thinning and checking of fruit drop; extraction; isolation and bioassay for auxins; gibberellins; cytokinins and abscissic acid; application of chemicals and their role in photosynthates and growth.


Hort 518    Citriculture                                                                                                              1+1

History; origin and distribution of citrus fruits; classification; nomenclature and varieties; climate and soil requirements; propagation; rootstocks; polyembryony and its significance; fruit bud differentiation; fruit set and fruit development; fruit drop and its control; nutrition and irrigation; maturity standards; harvesting; marketing and storage; citrus decline and granulation.



Tree and fruit characters; description and identification of different species and rootstocks; acquaintance with major diseases and pests; their management.


Hort 519    Small Fruit Culture                                                                                                 1+1

History; origin and distribution of grapes, strawberries, brambles, currants, gooseberries, blueberries and cranberries; climatic and soil requirement; effect of environmental factors on growth and productivity; propagation and rootstocks; mineral nutrition and irrigation requirements; training and pruning; harvesting and maturity; means of improving fruit quality.


Description of fruit varieties; practices in propagation; training and pruning; orchard anagement systems; insect, pest and disease management.


Hort  520    Post Harvest Physiology of Fruits                                                               2+1

Scope and importance; structure and composition of fruits; physiology and biochemistry of maturation, ripening and senescence, physiological disorders; chilling injury; parthenocarpy; physiological behaviour of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits during storage; role of pre harvest operations and post harvest treatments like nutrition; irrigation, controlled atmosphere storage and growth regulators in extending shelf life of temperate and sub-tropical fruits; maturity standards; quality evaluation of fruits; storage disorders; low temperature injury.


Maturity indices of temperate and sub tropical fruits; evaluation of some post-harvest treatments for extending shelf life; evaluation of various storage chambers; use of different packages for storage and transport; quantitative estimation of various fruit constituents sugars; acids; phenols; pigments; proteins; pectin; starch; ascorbic acid and total amino acids; visit to cold storage plants.


Hort 521    Fruit Technology                                                                                         2+1

Importance and scope of fruit preservation industry in India and Himachal Pradesh, importance of fruits in diet; effect of processing on nutritional values; causes of spoilage; methods of preservation; establishment of a processing plant; layout requirement and operation of the plant; utilization and disposal of waste; food additives; fruit beverages; fermented beverages; jam, jellies, preserves, candies, pickles, chutney and sauces; canning and bottling; freeze preservation and dehydration; biochemical changes during processing and storage; food standards; importance of micro-organisms associated with fruit spoilage


Preparation of above mentioned products with standard methods; analysis of various products; estimation of preservatives; microbial examination and sensory evaluation of products; operation and working of a canning unit; freezing; peeling and blanching of fruits.


Hort 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                           1+0



Plant Breeding and Genetics


Professors/ equivalent





Bhandari, J. C., Bhateria, S., Gupta, V. P., Kalia, N. R., Kalia, V., Katoch, P. C., Kaushik, R. P., Sethi, G. S., Sharma, B. K., Sharma, S. L., Sharma, S. K., Sharma, S. C., Singh, H. B., Sood, B. C., Sood, K. C., Thakur, H. L., Thakur, K. S., Thakur, S. R.

Associate Professors/ equivalent



Basandrai, D., Chaudhary, H. K., Gartan, S. L., Gautam, A. S., Gupta, J. C., Kalia, R., Kapila, R. K., Paul, S., Mittal, R. K., Sharma, J. K., Sirohi, A., Sood, O. P., Sood, V. K., Verma, S.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Chahota, R. K., Dhiman, K. C., Guleria, S., Pandey, D. P., Singh, D., Lata, S., Kumari, V., Kumari, V.



M.Sc., Ph.D.

Fields of Specialization


Plant Breeding

Core Courses                       



M. Sc.:   PBG 501, PBG 502,PBG 511, PBG 521, PBG 522

Ph. D. :  PBG 601, PBG 611



PBG 501    Principles of Genetics                                                                                2+1

Historical perspective on genetics; Mendelian principles; gene interactions; linkage; detection and estimation in various organisms; intergenic and intragenic complementation and recombination, complex loci, fine structure analysis of gene; genetic control of metabolism; gene-protein-polypeptide relationships; genetic material-nature, structure, organization and replication; genetic code, transcription and translation, gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; mobile genetic elements and dynamic nature of genome; mutations- induction, detection and mechanisms; environmental influence on gene expression; extra-nuclear inheritance; polygenic inheritance; population genetics- Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, changes in gene and genotype frequencies; human genetics- genetic disorders and gene therapy; recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, vectors, genetic transformation and genomics. 


Demonstration of Mendelian principles using different organisms; modification of dihybrid  ratios using maize as model system; multiple alleles (ABO blood group system); analysis of penetrance and expressivity (PTC test); linkage, crossing over and gene mapping using Drosophila/Neurospora; numerical exercises related to Mendelian principles; gene interactions, linkage and gene mapping; induction and detection of sex-linked recessive lethals (Drosophila); analysis of quantitative inheritance in plant (variation in seed weight); DNA isolation and analysis of size variation among genomes (bacteria, phage and plants) and genomic components (chromosomal and plasmid DNA); demonstration of molecular marker techniques. 


PBG 502    Principles of Cytogenetics                                                                          2+1

History of cytogenetics; chromosomal theory of inheritance; chromosome structure - prokaryotes and eukaryotes, function and replication; karyotype analysis, chromosome banding pattern and fine structure; different forms of chromosomes (lampbrush, polytene, B, sex and  artificial chromosomes) and their functional significance; cell division - behaviour of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, significance, mechanisms and theories of crossing over, recombination models, cytological basis and role of synaptonemal complex, structural variation in chromosomes- deficiencies, duplication, inversions and interchanges; numerical variation in chromosomes- sources and consequences, euploidy and aneuploidy; evolutionary significance and use in basic and applied research; synthesis of natural and new polyploids, haplontic-diplontic barriers and means to overcome them;  nucleocytoplasmic  interaction; chromosomes in evolution, elements of molecular cytogenetics.


Preparation of important stains; microscopy; preparation of slides; fixing of the materials for mitotic and meiotic analysis; demonstration of crossing over/chiasmata; karyotype analysis, chromosomal aberration, chromosome banding, photomicrography and image analysis. 


PBG 511    Principles of Plant Breeding                                                                      2+1

 Historical perspectives; objectives, achievements in the pre-Mendelian era, post-Mendelian plant breeding, potential and opportunities; centres of origin, plant genetic resources; modes of reproduction in plants; genetic basis of plant breeding; genetic consequences of self and cross fertilization, genetics of self incompatibility; different mating systems and their genetic consequences; qualitative and quantitative traits; components of variation; heritability; responses to selection; heterosis – concept and theories; inbreeding depression; methods of breeding self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and asexually propagated crops; hybrid breeding and population improvement; clonal selection; mutation and polyploidy breeding and distant hybridization in plant breeding;  crop breeding for resistance/tolerance; application of biotechnology to plant breeding; release and registration of new varieties; quality seed – classes, production practices and maintenance of pure seed, seed purity standards, UPOV convention, plant breeders/farmers’ rights; farmers’ participatory plant breeding.


Floral biology in self and cross pollinating crop species; selfing and crossing techniques in major field crops; determination of extent of outcrossing, male sterility – detection and maintenance; self incompatibility and techniques of maintenance and overcoming sporophytic and gametophytic incompatibility; selection methods in segregating populations; evaluation of breeding material, screening for quality traits, resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; demonstration of quality seed production through nucleus.


PBG 521    Biometrical Approaches in Plant Breeding                                                2+1

Nature and origin of continuous variation; relationship between genotype and phenotype; separation of components of variability; correlation and path analysis at the genotypic and phenotypic levels; discriminate functions; parent-offspring regression analysis; estimation of genic effects and testing the adequacy of additive-dominance model by simple scaling and joint scaling; line x tester and diallel analysis for combining ability; North Carolina designs and concept of TTC; genotype environment interaction and  models of adaptability.


Computation and interpretation of data using generation mean approach for testing validity of additive-dominance model; estimation of genic effects following joint scaling test; analysis of observed variability; estimation of genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlation coefficients and direct and indirect effects; formulation of selection indices; combining ability analysis following diallel and line x tester mating designs; analysis of NC designs; adaptability analysis. 


PBG 522    Experimental Designs in Plant Breeding                                                    1+1

 Purpose, methods, principles and interpretation of results of plant breeding experiments, handling of a large number of segregating lines; application of randomized block, latin square, strip plot, split plot, progeny row, compact-family block, simple and balanced lattice, augmented, and honey-comb designs in plant breeding; missing plot techniques; group data analysis from varietal trials over environments.


Computation and interpretation of experimental data pertaining to randomised block, latin square, split plot, strip plot, compact-family block, simple and balanced lattice designs, augmented designs; computation of missing values and group data analysis.


PBG 531    Population Genetics                                                                                                2+0

History and role of population genetics;  Hardy-Weinberg Law, dynamics of gene frequency under selection, migration, mutation and genetic drift;  sub division – selection in niches, small and pedigreed population;  linkage - equilibrium; two and multi-gene systems; polymorphisms and evolution, inbreeding, correlation between relatives; mixed mating systems;  genetic load and fitness;  co-adapted gene complexes;  homeostasis.  adaptive organization of gene pools;  introgression : case studies to illustrate various concepts of population genetics; related exercises in population genetics. 


PBG 532    Molecular Genetics                                                                                                            2+1

 Genomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; genome organization - euchromatin and heterochromatin; DNA content variation; types of DNA sequences - unique and repetitive sequences, minisatellites and microsatellites; organelle genomes; gene amplification and its significance; mechanisms of DNA replication and recombination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; DNA sequencing; gene fine structure in prokaryotes and eukaryotes - split genes, nested genes (case studies); transcription and its regulation  in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Post-transcriptional regulation - mRNA processing, SnRNAs, ribozymes and RNA editing; regulation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes – ribosomes, mRNAs, tRNAs and translational factors; post-translational modifications; structural and functional genomics; proteomics and protein-protein interaction; signal transduction; genes in development; mechanisms and regulation of cell division, cancer and cell ageing; episomes and transposable elements.


Media preparation for growing transgenic bacterial strains; induction, isolation and characterization of mutants in bacteria; replica plating of bacterial strains; demonstrations of DNA restriction and electrophoresis, interpretation of electrophoretograms in relation to molecular markers.


PBG 541    Evolution and Cytogenetic Approaches in Plant Breeding                         2+1

Patterns of variation in cultivated and wild species; natural selection and changes in chromosome and gene frequencies in wild and cultivated species in response to change in environment; evolution and phylogenetic relationships in crop plants; homoeostasis, polymorphism and mimicry, polyploidy breeding, types of polyploids; application of polyploids in crop improvement; genome analysis; barriers to interspecific and intergeneric hybridization; chromosome manipulation in plant breeding; haploid and dihaploidy breeding.


Familiarization and demonstration of relationship pattern of variation and phylogenetic association among wild, weedy and cultivated species of some important crops; induction of polyploidy, use of various techniques to overcome barriers to wide hybridization; study of some important cytogenetic stocks.  


PBG 542    Breeding for Stress Resistance                                                                   2+1

Nomenclature and classification of stresses, genetic, physiological and molecular mechanisms of diseases and insect pest resistance, host-parasite interaction - variation in pathogen and host, factors affecting host reactions, gene-for-gene concept, implications and significance in plant breeding; identification of resistance genes; diversity and characterization of pathogen variation; multipathotype testing; gene postulation using infection type data;  breeding for tolerance to abiotic stresses- drought, salinity, alkalinity, water logging, temperature, acidic conditions, heavy metal toxicity. morphological, physiological and genetic basis of abiotic stresses; screening techniques for breeding materials; sources of resistance, shuttle breeding, stability of resistance, gene deployment; mechanism of durable resistance, breeding methods for disease resistance; concepts of varietal blends and multilines;  use of molecular markers in mapping genes for stress resistance;  molecular markers assisted selection;  introgression of genes from the wild relatives of crop plants;  pyramiding of resistance genes;  transgenics in management and glucanases for insect pest management. 


Creation of abiotic stresses - pH, temperature induced stress and recording observations; screening of segregating populations; an exposure to on-going stress breeding projects.


PBG 551    Crop Genetic Resources                                                                             2+0

Plant genetic resources and crop improvement; genetic erosion and vulnerability; gene-pool concept; domestication, distribution diversification and dissemination of economic plants; centres of diversity and the use of genetic resources in cereals, pseudocereals, pulses, oilseeds, millets, fibre crops, fodder, forages; fruit, vegetables and medicinal and aromatic plants; exploration and germplasm collection – principles, sampling strategies, code of conduct and practices; germplasm introduction and exchange/regulatory mechanism, phytosanitary clearance and post-entry quarantine; germplasm accessions; characterization, evaluation, documentation and maintenance; molecular markers for characterization of the germplasm; conservation strategies – in-situ and ex situ approaches – seed gene bank, field gene bank, biodiversity garden preservation of orthodox and recalcitrant seeds and vegetatively  propagated crops – in vitro and cryopreservation; PGR database management, descriptors and descriptor states; national  and international PGR management system – active, base and working collections and germplasm use; germplasm registration and IPR; exploration trip and preparation of herbarium.


PBG 552    Seed Technology                                                                                       2+1

Seed as a basic input; procedure of seed production, characterization and identification of varieties and testing of different crops; standards for maintaining seed quality; deterioration of varieties; factors determining ideal areas of seed production, pollination and reproduction in relation to seed production and varietal maintenance; release and notification of varieties; concepts in seed physiology and seed health; principles, procedures and rules of sampling, purity tests, germination and viability tests; concepts and objectives of seed certification; seed dormancy.


Seed sampling procedures; physical purity and seed germination tests; moisture testing procedures; seed vigour and seed viability tests; procedures and guidelines for the maintenance of genetic purity of important crop varieties; seed processing and seed storage procedures; treatments for breaking seed dormancy.


PBG 561    Biotechnological Techniques  in Crop Improvement                                             1+1

General introduction to the technology of cell, tissue protoplast and organ culture; embryo and ovule culture for wide hybridization; intraovarian pollination and in vitro fertilization for overcoming incompatibility; anther and pollen culture for production of haploids; meristem culture and production of pathogen-free plants; vegetative propagation and cloning; mutagenesis in cell and tissue culture; somatic hybridization and exploitation of somatic hybrids; transformation, transgenesis, nitrogen fixation; freeze preservation of germplasm.


Familiarization with tissue culture equipment and preparation of nutrient media; techniques for the culture of embryo, ovule, anther and other tissues; callus induction and differentiation; in vitro mutagenesis and selection for some traits.


PBG 562    Breeding for Crop Quality                                                                          2+1

Quality traits in field crops-need and prospects for genetic improvement; genetics of quality traits and their components; variability, heritability and correlation with yield; breeding objectives, approaches and achievements in improvement of quality traits in specific crops; wheat- chemical composition of grains, genetics and significance of storage proteins; nutrition evaluation, cooking, ecological, baking and chapatti making properties; rice - chemical composition, genetics and evaluation of nutritional and cooking quality characters, viz., amylase, gelatinization temperature, gel consistency, kernel elongation ratio and aroma; maize - properties of corn, starch specialty corn, high quality protein, biochemical and genetical studies of kernel mutants (opaque 2, floury 2, etc.); fodder-quality evaluation; pulses - breeding for quality protein and removal of anti-nutritional factors; oilseeds - breeding for low erucic acid and glucosinolates brassicas, high linoleic acid and oil content; soybean, linseed and sesamum; under-utilized crops (amaranth, buckwheat, ricebean and small millets).


Rapid screening techniques for important quality traits; fibre extraction in flax.


PBG    571 Induced Mutagenesis                                                                                             2+1

History of experimental mutagenesis; nature of mutations, spontaneous mutations; mode of induction, physical mutagens: properties and effect of ionizing radiations, RBE and LET, direct and indirect effects; chemical mutagens; nature of chemical reactions, mode of action and classification of various chemical groups; transposons as mutagens; somaclonal variation; repair of mutagenic damage; genetic sieves in mutation induction; screening techniques and selection procedures of induced mutations; test systems, modifying testers; biological and environmental parameters influencing mutagenic efficiency; mutagens- application methodology and mode of their action;  specificity of mutation induction and directed mutagenesis; targeted gene replacement; gene silencing; mutation breeding in plants, animals and micro-organisms - scope and achievements; use of mutagens as carcinostatic agents; environmental mutagenesis - bacteria, mammalian cell cultures, Drosophila,  transgenics as environmental mutagen monitors.


Practicals on related aspects of mutagenesis.


PBG 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                           1+0

PBG 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                          0+1

PBG 600    M. Sc.  Research                                                                                        1-18




PBG 601    Advanced Biometrical Approaches in Plant Breeding                               2+1

Description of non-allelic interactions and their dependendability on the scale used; detection and estimation of digenic, trigenic or higher order interaction effects; components of heterosis in the presence of digenic and trigenic interactions and their implications in plant breeding; detection of linkage and its effects on generation means and genic effects/relative magnitude of components of genetic variance in successive and back-cross generations; unweighted and weighted analysis of partitioning of variation in generation variance approach; genetic analysis of induced, polygenic variation using Mather’s approach of generation means and variances; Hayman’s approach of diallel analysis and its comparison with other diallel approaches; partial diallel approach; estimation of heritability and co-heritability and their implications; detection of linkage for polygenic traits using second degree statistics and their influence on variances in successive generations; estimation of number of effective factors; triple test cross analysis; concept of triallel, quadrallel and prediction of crosses; QTLs in crop improvement.


Computation and interpretation of data using generation mean analysis for the detection and estimation of digenic and trigenic interactions and linkage; unweighted and weighted analysis of components of variance; exclusive and inclusive analysis for the detection of non-allelic interaction and linkage; analysis and interpretation of data pertaining to diallel (Hayman’s approach), partial diallel, triple test cross mating designs; analysis of prediction of crosses; introduction of different softwares.


   PBG 602    Advanced Biotechnology and Crop Improvement                                                  2+1                

Introduction and historical perspective; restriction enzymes and vectors; gene cloning, identification,  isolation and synthesis; in vitro regeneration in crop plants; gene transfer systems- vector mediated; microinjection, electroporation, microprojectile,  other  direct and indirect DNA uptake techniques; selection markers and reporter system; gene silencing; application of plant genetic engineering and biotechnology – current status and future prospects; transgenic  crops; biosafety and regulation issues of transgenic crops;  molecular breeding – morphological, biochemical and DNA based markers (RFLP, RAPD, AFLP,STS. SCARS, SSLP etc.); mapping populations (F2s, backcrosses, RILs, NILs and DHs); molecular mapping and tagging of agronomically important traits; QTLs analysis in crop plants;  marker assisted selection for qualitative and quantitative traits; advanced backcross QTL method in MAS; gene pyramiding;  biotechnology application in male sterility/hybrid breeding; embryo rescue, somatic hybridization and doubled haploids;  biotechnology in PGR management; biosafety issues in transgenic plants. 


Nuclear, plasmid and bacteriophage DNA isolation; in vitro regeneration;  demonstration and practice of important biotechnological techniques-  restriction analysis,   transformation; isozyme analysis, molecular marker analysis using PCR technique, DNA finger-printing, molecular marker and mapping population; visit to laboratories.


PBG 611    Advances in Selection Methods                                                                 2+0

Genetic structure of natural populations – fundamental theory of natural selection, adaptive peaks, genetic homeostasis, genetic load, mutational and segregational load, genetic basis of evolution of fitness, dynamics of gene frequency under selection, migration, genetic drift, effective population size; factors affecting choice of selection strategies – reproductive system, heterosis, ploidy, gene action, heritability and plant material; types, response,  criteria,  and limits of selection; correlated response to selection; different selection index models; pureline, mass, grid, rhombic-grid, honey-comb, pedigree, mass-pedigree, bulk, single-seed-descent, backcross  selection methods; modified diallel selective mating system; recurrent selection and marker assisted recurrent selection; intra-population selection methods – mass, recurrent restricted phenotypic, half-sib family, full-sib family, selfed S1, S2 family selection; inter-population selection methods –various reciprocal recurrent selection schemes; clonal selection; molecular marker assisted selection; farmers’ participatory plant breeding and selection criteria.


PBG 612    Crop Cytogenetics and Genome Analysis                                                   2+0

Principles and procedures of genome analysis; colinearity among genomes and synteny; use of conventional and modern techniques – morphological, cytological, genetical, biochemical and molecular tools; species concept; theories of evolution; isolation mechanisms and criterion of species; role of cytogenetical factors in the evolution of major crops like wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, Brassicas,  cotton, pulses, forage crops and  medicinal plants.


PBG 621    Heterosis Breeding                                                                                     2+1

Introduction and historical aspects; development of heterosis concept; genetic, physiological and molecular basis of heterosis; inbreeding depression; hybrid breeding methodology-development and improvement of heterotic pool, and inbred lines, evaluation of inbred lines and hybrids, nature and number of testers, combining ability and performance per se prediction of hybrid performance, BLUP, genetic diversity and heterosis, genotype x  environment interaction and heterosis; male sterility systems (cytoplasmic, genetic, cytoplasmic-genetic, EGMS,gametocide induced and genetically engineered male sterility) –origin, development, maintenance and exploitation in hybrid breeding; application of biotechnology in heterosis breeding-molecular markers, doubled haploids, somatic hybridization; current status and future prospects of hybrid breeding in selected crops (rice, wheat, brassica, sunflower, cotton, pearlmillet, sorghum, maize, pigeonpea, castor and vegetable crops), apomixis and its application in exploitation of heterosis.


Cytoplasmic male sterility systems in rice, wheat and brassicas, somatic hybridization, identification of maintainers and restorers in wheat, rice and brassica; estimation of heterosis, use of gametocides in male sterility induction, observations on floral traits promoting out-crossing, isolation requirements for hybrid seed production, demonstration of hybrid seed production on public and private farms.


PBG 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                           1+0

PBG 692     Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                         0+1

PBG 700    Ph. D. Research                                                                                          1-18



Plant Pathology


Professors/ equivalent


Bhardwaj, C. L., Kapoor, A. S., Kaushal, R. P., Paul, Y. S., Sharma, O. P., Sood, A. K., Sood, G. K., Sugha, S. K.

Associate Professors/ equivalent



Dhancholia, S., Kumar, Ashok, Pal, Jatinder, Rana, S. K., Rana, K. S., Sharma, B. K., Sharma, B. M., Sharma, P. N., Singh, Akhilesh, Singh, Anand, Singh, Dhanbir, Sud, A. K., Thakur, B. R.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent


Banyal, D. K., Develash, R. K., Kumar, Suman, Mondal, K. K., Singh, Amar



M. Sc., Ph. D.

Fields of Specialization


Fungal Pathology, Epidemiology and Disease Management, Plant Bacteriology, plant Virology, Plant Disease Resistance

Core Courses                       




M. Sc. : Pl Path  501, Pl Path  511,  pl Path 512, Pl Path  531, Pl Path  541

Ph. D. :Pl Path  611, Pl Path  614,  Pl Path 621


Pl Path 501    Systematic Mycology                                                                                         2+1

Introduction; milestones in mycology, classification, latest developments in fungal characterization; nomenclature, typification of fungi; importance of herbarium; Myxomycota; general characters, life cycle of Plasmodiophora brassicae; Eumycota: Mastigomycotina; life cycle of important plant pathogenic genera including members of Saprolegniales and Blastocladiales; Zygomycotina; general characters of Zygomycetes; sexual, asexual stages (heterothallism and homothallism); important characters of VAM fungi; Ascomycotina; fruiting types, life cycles of important genera  of hemiascomycetes, plectomycetes, pyrenomycetes, discomycetes and loculoascomycetes;   Deuteromycotina; account of important genera of Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes; Basidiomycotina; important  rusts and smuts; sexuality in fungi; lichens; fleshy fungi and their importance in hill agro-ecosystems.


Vegetative structures in fungi; aseptate, septate hyphae, chlamydospores, strands, rhizomorphs and sclerotia; identification and classification of genera belonging to Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Deuteromycotina and Basidiomycotina; demonstration of herbarium specimens; collection of fungi from natural hill and mountain agro-ecosystem and their identification up to generic level.

   Pl Path    502 Cultivation of Edible Fungi                                                                    2+1

History; nutritional requirements of fungi for vegetative growth; cultivation of Agaricus bisporus;  food value; economics of production; preservation of edible fungi; production of spawn; methods of preparing compost; characteristics of casing soil; management of  moisture, ventilation and environmental parameters affecting fruit body formation; important characteristics of A. bisporus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea etc.; pests and pathogens of mushrooms and their control.


Spawn production; preparation and seeding of compost; selection of casing soil; pH analysis; sterilization by various methods; picking and packing of mushrooms; familiarity with different pests and pathogens of different mushroom fungi; preservation and canning of mushrooms.

   Pl Path 511    Principles of Plant Pathology                                                                            3+1

Concept, nature and classification of plant diseases; terminology; landmarks in the development of science of plant pathology; causes of plant diseases; biotic and abiotic stresses, air pollutants, mineral deficiencies and toxicities; non-parasitic plant pathogens; allelopathy; pathogen identification; symptomatology; Koch’s postulates; disease identification in field; production, liberation and dissemination of inoculum; factors affecting fungal sporulation; process of infection and host parasite interaction; epidemiology, forecasting and assessment of losses; disease resistance; mechanism of disease resistance; VR and  HR concepts, durable resistance, cytoplasmic resistance; pathogen variability; procedures of virulence analysis, mechanism of variability; effect of environmental factors and host nutrition; survival of pathogens in seed, soil and living plants; soil-plant-pathogen interaction; disease management; solarization, cultural practices, biological, genetical and chemical methods; plant quarantine; genetic engineering for disease resistance;  IDM and organic farming.


Study of representative diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and phytoplasma with emphasis on host- parasite interaction; factors affecting disease development; measurement of disease; estimation of losses; management practices.


Pl Path 512    Plant Pathological Techniques                                                                          0+2

Principles and working of commonly used and advanced instruments in plant pathology; methods to prove Koch’s postulates with obligate and non-obligate pathogens; preparation of solutions; molecular techniques for detection of plant pathogens; pure culture techniques; preservation of plant pathogens and plant disease specimens; micrometry; use of haemocytometer, centrifuge, pH meter and camera-lucida; microscopical techniques; staining methods; microtomy, chromatography, spectrophotometry  and  electrophoresis,  tissue culture techniques.

Pl Path 513    Fungal Diseases                                                                                     2+1

Introduction ; economic importance, symptoms, disease cycle, epidemiology and management of important fungal diseases of cereals and millets (rusts, smuts, bunts, mildews , blights, root rots);  pulses (leaf spots, anthracnose, wilts, blights, rots); oilseeds  (blights., white rust, rusts, mildews, stalk rots);  vegetables (wilts, root rots, scurf, scab, blights, fruit rots, mildews , leaf spots, die backs)., fruits (scab, mildews, cankers, root rots, collar rots, fruit rots, malformation, die back);  plantation crops (stem bleeding, panama wilt, mildew, black shank, blister blight , rust, stem rot); cotton (wilt , leaf spots);  forest plants (canker, rust, mildew, rots); post-harvest diseases (soft rots, dry rots) and their management.


Study of symptoms and host-parasite relationship of important diseases.


Pl Path 514    Principles of Plant Disease Management                                              2+1

Introduction to principles of plant disease management; cultural practices; host plant resistance and its practical exploitation; use of chemicals and bio-agents in disease management ; induced resistance and its practical implications; role of botanicals in plant disease management; biotechnological approaches in disease management; integrated disease management.


Familiarity with working of different plant protection equipments; in vitro determination of fungitoxicity of various fungicides; preparation of bio-agents in laboratory ( Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas flourescens and others ); use of fungicides in the field.


Pl Path 515    Plant Disease Epidemiology                                                                  2+1

Definition; development of concepts and principles of epidemiology; mono and  polycyclic processes; influence of weather, host resistance and human interference on plant diseases; mapping epidemic growth; epidemic growth curve analysis; calculating the rate of epidemic growth; pathometry, modeling, disease growth and assessment of losses, disease forecasting; epidemiological approaches in integrated disease management; decision making and economics of disease control.


Experiments on the role of edaphic and environmental factors on disease cycle; techniques for creating artificial epiphytotics; recording of disease incidence and severity; plotting of growth curves, measurement of diseases in relation to losses; calculation of r values and their interpretation; handling and use of agro-meteorological instruments, computer application.

Pl Path 516    Seed Pathology                                                                                     2+1

Introduction; economic significance; infection of seeds; terms and definitions; seed infection routes, location of inoculum, outcome of infection; detection of seed borne pathogens; current techniques, direct inspection, incubation methods, immuno-diagnostic methods, nucleic acid based methods including PCR; longevity of pathogens, effect of seed storage on pathogen viability and infectivity; seed transmission; effect of environment, soil microorganism and host genotype on seed transmission; relationship between inoculum potential and disease transfer; spread of seed borne pathogens; monocyclic and polycyclic diseases, transport of inoculum, relationship between seed transmitted inoculum and rate of increase of disease; control of seed borne diseases; chemical and physical seed treatment, systemic fungicides, fungicidal resistance, use of microbes, mode of action of biological active organisms, degradation of seed treated chemicals in the soil, commercial seed treatments, registration of microbial products; crop sanitation, exclusion and reduction of seed borne inoculum: legislative measures, quarantine laws, seed certification standards; selection of disease free seed production areas, designated seed borne diseases in seed act, global seed trade, phytosanitory certificate under WTO and TRIPS.


Study of different methods of seed health testing; study of seed microflora and factors affecting seed transmission; effect of seed infection on viability, storage and longevity of seeds.


Pl Path 517    Biological Control of Plant Diseases                                                                  1+1

Introduction; definition, history, scope, principles and factors affecting biological control; mechanism of bio-control; hyper-parasitism, antibiosis, competition, PGPR, siderophores, mycorrhizae; bio-control agents; commercial formulations, characterization; increasing efficacy; genetic engineering, mutagens, hybridization; delivery system: problems and limits; commercial production and distribution system.


Identification of antagonistic microorganisms; techniques for multiplication; in vitro assay of antagonistic nature; mechanism of control; compatibility of bio-agents with other chemicals; methods of evaluation of bio-agents.

Pl Path 518    Plant Disease Resistance                                                                                               2+1

Definitions and concepts; nature of disease resistance; non-specific and specific resistance, morphological, biochemical, cytological and ultra-structural aspects of resistance; effect of environment on the expression of resistance; variation and variability of pathogens; genetics of resistance; oligogenic, polygenic and cytoplasmic resistance; genetics of virulence and aggressiveness; the gene-for-gene concept; vertical and horizontal resistance and factors governing their effectiveness; breeding for disease resistance; management and stability of resistance; evolution of resistance; genetic vulnerability and loss of resistance.


Evaluation techniques for identifying resistant genotypes; identification of races of plant pathogens; inoculum potential for identifying resistance; study of morphological resistance.


Pl Path 519    Plant Quarantine and Pest Risk Analysis                                                           1+0

WTO regulations; symptomatic diagnosis of diseases, external and internal; sanitary and phytosanitory measures; plant quarantine in relation to plant pathogens; detection of seed borne, fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens; detection in vegetative propagules; seed certification standards; salvaging of infected plant material; WTO, TRIPS and pest risk analysis; identification of disease free areas; contamination of food with toxigenic microorganisms and their elimination.


Pl Path 521    Biotechnological and Molecular Plant Pathology                                              2+1

Scope and techniques of plant cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture in plant pathology; production of pathogen free plants; in vitro induction and selection for disease resistance; somaclonal and gametoclonal variation for disease resistance; interspecific / intergeneric somatic hybridization for the transfer of resistance from alien species; approaches for the cloning and transfer of resistance / avirulence gene(s); construction of efficient biocontrol agents; molecular diagnosis of plant diseases; use of molecular markers to study pathogen variability.


Peparation of plant tissue culture media; plant regeneration from callus/cell cultures; in vitro assay of pathotoxins; meristem tip culture, demonstration of isozyme variation in plant pathogens; use of ELISA for the detection of plant pathogens.


Pl Path 531    Plant  Bacteriology                                                                                                        2+1

History and development; microscopy; phase contrast, TEM, SEM; classification of stains; simple and complex staining, acid fast staining, role of proteins in staining; classification and nomenclature; ultrastructure and chemical composition; bacterial metabolism; elementary bacterial genetics and variability; phytoplasma, rickettsia, bacteriophages, bdellovibrios; important bacterial diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops and their integrated management.


Simple, Gram, acid fast, spore and flagella staining; dilution plating; Koch’s postulates; growth curve/rate; selective media; key biochemical tests for identification and pathotyping; staining of cellular reserve material; hydrolytic enzymes; isolation of antibiotic resistant mutants; isolation of bacteriophages and phage typing; symptomatology; ooze test; seed/soil-borne pathogens.


Pl Path    541 Plant Virology                                                                                                    2+1

History and economic importance of plant viruses; transmission and host range; symptomatology; methods of transmission; biology of insect vectors and virus vector relationship; isolation, characterization and purification of viruses; morphology of viruses; chemical composition and architecture of viruses; serology of plant viruses; electron microscopy; nomenclature and classification; physiology of virus infected plants; movement of viruses; ecology and epidemiology of viruses; important viral diseases of cereals, vegetables, pulses, oilseeds and fruit crops; virus diseases management; biotechnological approaches to control viral diseases; seed certification; quarantine.


Symptoms of plant viral diseases; cytopathology using light microscope; virus transmission (mechanical, graft, aphid, whitefly); buffer, pH, virus purification, serological techniques- tube precipitation, microprecipitation, double diffusion, ELISA and DIBA; physio-chemical properties of plant viruses (DEP, TIP, LIV); assaying of viruses by local lesion method.


Pl Path 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                      1+0

Pl Path 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                                 0+1

Pl Path 500    M. Sc. Research                                                                                     1-18


Pl Path 601    Advanced Mycology                                                                              2+1

History of mycology; international code of botanical nomenclature; different systems of classification; evolution and phylogeny of fungi; morphology of conidia and conidiogenous cells, genetic variability in fungi; chemotaxonomy; metabolite production by different groups of fungi; mycotoxins, their occurrence; factors governing their production and detection; role of fungi in biodeterioration; morphology and classification of important genera of all groups of fungi;  role of VAM fungi in plant productivity;   use of pcr, rfLP for identification of fungi and their biotypes;  study of compatibility groups of fungi; hypovirulence in fungi; account of important edible species.


Preparation of monograph of at least one fungal genus, cultural and morphological studies of fungi, isolation and identification of VAM fungi; demonstration of molecular markers for identification of fungi.


 Pl Path    611 Mechanism of Pathogenesis                                                                             2+0

Concept and evolution of parasitism and pathogenesis; pre-penetration development of pathogens; physiology of spore germination and differentiation structures; mechanism of host penetration; colonization of host tissues; host recognition phenomenon; role of enzymes and toxins in disease establishment; physical and chemical mechanism; synergism among pathogens; role of environment in pathogenesis.

Pl Path 612    Advanced Plant Disease Epidemiology                                                 2+1

Mathematical approaches in calculating epidemic growth; analysis, comparison, interpretation and use of disease progress curves of foliar and root diseases; systems analysis and management; pathogen co-evolution; pathogen fitness and survival; disease gradients and disease spread; genetics of epidemics.


  Analysis and interpretation of disease progress curves and disease gradients; use of computer in epidemiology.


Pl Path 613    Advances in Plant Disease Management                                                                       2+1

Theory and principles of disease management; management strategy and economic thresholds; relationship of environmental factors and cultural practices to disease development; associated microbiota and their role in disease management; genetics of host pathogen interaction; management of host genes; biotechnological and molecular approaches in disease management; fungicides/ chemotherapeutants in the management of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. IDM, disease prediction, quarantine, cultural, biological, genetical and chemical control.


   Control measures; physical methods; bioassay chemicals; biocontrol measures and treatment procedures, disease resistance; evaluation, breeding methods; biotechnological tools; integrated disease management.

Pl Path 614    Advances in Plant Disease Resistance                                                   2+0

Nature and regulation of genes for plant disease resistance and pathogen avirulence; molecular basis of resistance and virulence; current models of specific recognition between plants and pathogens; molecular basis of gene-for-gene interaction; biochemistry of induced systemic resistance; population structure of pathogens; isolation and cloning of avirulence genes from pathogens and genes for general resistance from plants;  approaches to cloning of genes for specific resistance.


Pl Path 621    Chemicals in Plant Disease Control                                                       2+1

Chemicals in plant disease control viz., fungicides, bactericides, nematicides, botanicals and antiviral chemicals; history and classification of fungicides; proprietory fungicides and their use; use of fungicides in disease control; mode of action of fungicides; compatibility and phytotoxicity; development of resistance against systemic fungicides; chemical and physical interactions on the host surface; deposit build up and persistence of fungicides; adjuvants in relation to formulations.


 Formulations of fungicides, bactericides and other chemicals; in vitro evaluation techniques; preparation of different concentrations of chemicals including botanicals based on active ingredients; persistence; detection of naturally occurring fungicide resistant mutants of fungi; methods of application of chemicals; analysis of chemical residues in crop and crop products; acquaintance with plant protection appliances.


Pl Path 631    Advanced Bacteriology                                                                                      2+1

Bacterial classification; current trends in bacterial taxonomy, chemotaxonomy, fatty acid/protein profile; fastidious prokaryotes and interrelationships of various groups; characterization and approaches for identification of bacteria including nucleic acid technology; genomic fingerprinting and computer based identification of bacteria; plasmid biology, plasmid profile, RFLP; host pathogen interaction; primary disease determinants, toxins and enzymes; types of bacterial polysaccharides; mechanism of development of crown gall, soft rots, wilts and leaf spots, avr, vir, path, hrp genes; bacterial ecology; survival, colonization ability, competitive saprophytic ability, ice-nucleation active bacteria, phylloplane bacteria, endophytes, rhizobacteria, PGPR, mechanism of action of biocontrol agents; serology; monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against phytopathogenic genera.


Cultural and biochemical characterization; computer identification; dendrograms; isolation of plasmids; gel electrophoresis, restriction of plasmids; toxins and enzymes; HR/SR, population studies and dynamics of bacteria in phylloplane and rhizoplane; extraction of EPS, their production on different media and role in persistent water soaking; disease management; MIC, cross resistance; antagonism of biocontrol agents; siderophore/ phenolics/ HCN production; demonstration of PCR, RFLP, protein /isozyme profile.

Pl Path 641    Advanced Virology                                                                                2+1

Virus taxonomy, structure and physio-chemical properties; nomenclature and classification of plant viruses; isolation, purification and characterization of viruses;   virus replication, assembly and architecture; immuno-diagnosis: immunoglobulin  structure and functions of various domains; methods of immuno-diagnosis; hybridoma technology and use of monoclonal antibodies in identification of viruses and their strains; variability in viruses; criteria for identification of strains; physiology and biochemistry of virus infected plants; mechanism of virus transmission by vectors; virus-vector relationship; genome organization in DNA viruses; replication, transcription and translation strategies of para-retroviruses and geminiviruses; genome organisation in RNA viruses; genome organization of tobamo-, poty-, bromo- and tospo-viruses; RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene; organisation of movement gene; genome organization of sub-viral pathogens; satellite viruses and satellite RNA; viroids and virusoids; biotechnological management of virus diseases; genetic basis of host resistance;  host defense (PR-proteins, antiviral proteins, SAR); origin, evolution and phylogenetic relationship;  origin,  evolution and inter-relationship with animal viruses.


Purification of virus(es); SDS-PaGE for molecular weight determination; production of polyclonal antiserum; purification of 1gG and conjugate preparation; serological techniques- ELISA, Western blots; vector transmission; nucleic acid isolation; dot-blot southern hybridization; PCR application; viral genome cloning,


Pl Path 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                      1+0

Pl Path 692    Special problem in Ph. D.                                                                                  0+1

Pl Path 700    Ph. D. Research                                                                                    1-18



Soil Science


Professors/ equivalent


Jaggi, R. C., Kaistha, B. P., Kanwar, B. B., Kapoor, O. C., Katoch, K. K., Masand, S. S., Sharma, C. M., Sharma, P. K., Sharma, S. K., Sharma, S. P. Sood, R. D., Verma, T. S.

Associate Professors/ equivalent



Bhagat, R. M., Bhardwaj, S. K., Dixit, S. P., Dubey, Y. P., Ghabru, S. K., Kanwar, Kamla, Sharma, V. K., Singh, Virender,

Suri, V. K.

Assistant Professors/ equivalent



Dutt, Naveen, Jai Paul, Kumar, Pardeep, Kumar, Sanjay, Palial, S. S., Parmar, D. K., Sandal, S. K., Sankhayan, Narender, Sharma, R. P., Sharma, Sanjay, Subehia, S. K.



M.Sc., Ph.D.

Fields of Specialization


Pedology and Soil Survey, Soil Fertility and Chemistry, Soil Physics and Conservation, Soil Microbiology

Core Courses                      



M.Sc : Soils 501, Soils 511, Soils 521,    Soils 531

Ph.D. :  Soils 621, Soils 641



Soils 501    Soil Mineralogy, Genesis and Classification                                              2+1

Classification, structure, characteristics, distribution, origin and alteration of soil minerals; structural chemistry of soil minerals - ionic radii, coordination theory, Pauling’s rules, isomorphism, solid solution and polymorphism; clay-organic/humus complexes; tectonic and geologic history with special reference to soil parent materials; genesis and transformation of clay minerals in hill soils; non-crystalline components of soils; soil minerals and soil properties; soil taxonomy, master, genetic and diagnostic horizons; taxonomy of Indian soils; micro-morphology.


Study of crystal systems and crystal structures of soil minerals; separation of light and heavy minerals; soil mineral identification by conventional and instrumental methods; preparation and study of thin sections; surface area determination; study of soil profile.


Soils 502    Soil Survey and Land-Use Planning                                                                      2+1

Soil survey procedures; remote sensing techniques including aerial photo-interpretation; cartography - principles and techniques for preparation of thematic maps, compilation and abstraction of maps on different scales; soil correlation; criteria for taxonomic classification of soils; soil-survey data interpretation for agricultural and non-agricultural uses; study of landforms using remote sensing techniques; land-use planning with special reference to hill agro-ecosystems; role of GIS in land-use planning.


Soil survey of a project area: familiarization with soil survey equipments, base maps and remote sensing data products; preparation of base maps; interpretation of remote sensing data; study of soil profile and landforms; preparation of land use/land cover maps; acquisition and interpretation of soil resource and other collateral data; land capability classification; preparation of thematic maps; preparation of soil survey report and land use plan; use of GIS in soil mapping; preparation of soil monoliths.


Soils 511    Soil Chemistry                                                                                           2+1

Concepts of chemical equilibria in soils; soil colloids; structure and properties of electrical double layer; solubility relationships of important nutrients; salt dissolution and precipitation; kinetics of chemical reactions; organic matter and its characterization; clay-organic matter interaction; ion retention mechanisms and chemical and empirical relationships; surface chemistry and nutrient dynamics; chemical and electro-chemical properties of submerged soils; chemistry of acid and salt affected soils, and their reclamation.


Analysis of equilibrium soil solution for Eh, pH, EC and partial pressure of C02; determination of ion activity; exchange reactions of Na, K, Ca, Mg in soils; cation exchange capacity (CEC); characterization of acid and salt affected soils; lime and gypsum requirement; adsorption isotherms.


Soils 512    Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition                                                               2+1

Laws of soil fertility; forms, availability, mobility and losses of macro and micronutrients in soils; nutrient deficiencies and toxicities - recent diagnostic techniques and ameliorative measures; nutrient uptake mechanisms; quantity-intensity relationships; nutrient release and carry-over effects; nutrient-water interactions; balanced use of nutrients; integrated plant nutrient supply and management; soil fertility evaluation; soil test crop response correlations and response functions.


Laboratory and greenhouse experiments for evaluation of indices of nutrient availability and their critical values in soils and plants; determination of different pools of macro and micronutrients; quantity-intensity relationships of P and K; tissue analysis.


Soils 513    Manures and Fertilizers                                                                             2+1

Role of manures and fertilizers in sustainable agriculture; rural and urban enriched compost - preparation, preservation and mechanisms of their decomposition under different moisture regimes; fertilizer production, characteristics and use of different fertilizers;  factors affecting fertilizer use efficiency; fertilizer interaction in soils; use of low grade phosphate rocks in different soil types; recent developments in secondary and micronutrient fertilization; quality control of fertilizers and fertilizer control orders; future projections and consumption of fertilizers in India.


Determination of moisture, and macro and micronutrients in manures and fertilizers as per FCO; composting and analysis of rural wastes for C:N, C:P and C:S ratios along with micronutrients.


Soils 514    Environmental Pollution                                                                            2+1

Pollution problems and hazards; nature and sources of pollutants - industrial, agricultural and municipal wastes, fertilizers, pesticides, radio-nucleotides, fossil fuels, oil spills; soil sickness due to biological agents and toxins; heavy metals - toxicity, effects on nutrient availability and plant growth with special reference to road side/high way pollution; characterization and monitoring of air and water pollutants; air and water pollution as related to soil and their effects on plant growth; pollution control; soil as a sink for waste disposal; remediation of contaminated soil and water.


Sampling of industrial effluents and municipal waste waters; estimation of dissolved and suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate and ammonical nitrogen, and inorganic and organic phosphorus; analysis of soil and water for heavy metal contamination; nitrate in irrigation water.


Soils 521    Soil Physics                                                                                                           2+1

Soil as disperse three phase system and mass-volume relationships; soil texture; soil structure - genesis, evaluation and management; consistence, swelling, shrinkage, dispersion and workability of soils; puddling - processes and effects; clod formation - its effects and amelioration; soil compaction; soil crusting; soil conditioners; energy concept of soil water; soil water retention; saturated and unsaturated water movement in soils; infiltration, redistribution and evaporation; soil temperature - thermal properties, energy balance and modes of heat transfer in soils, management of soil temperature in relation to plant growth; soil air - characterization and measurement in relation to plant growth; spatial variability in hill soils.


Atterberg limits; wet aggregate analysis; modulus of rupture; coefficient of linear extensibility; proctor moisture content; water retention characteristics; pore-size distribution; oxygen diffusion rate; measurement of soil temperature by using different methods; determination of infiltration rate.


Soils 522    Soil-Water-Plant Relationships                                                                  2+1

Soil-plant-atmosphere continuum — pathways of water movement, variations in water potentials and fluxes; solute transport in soils; miscible displacement and breakthrough curves; root growth in relation to soil physical environment; structure and function of roots; water uptake pattern by crops; evapotranspiration and growth relations; models for water use, plant growth and yield.


Evapotranspiration losses under different situations; post-infiltration salt and water profile changes as a function of time; measurement of canopy temperature; leaf diffusion resistance; xylem water potential; determination of components of water balance in a cropped field.


Soils 523    Land Degradation and Restoration in Hills                                                            2+0

Processes of land degradation in hills; assessment of soil degradation - type (eroded soils, cold desert soils, river-bank soils, mine lands), degree and relative extent; factors (natural and anthropogenic) soil degradation; water erosion types and processes; gully erosion and its control; sustainable land management technologies including SALT (Sloping Agriculture Land Technology); integrated land and water resource management for rehabilitation of mountainous soils.


Soils 531    Soil Biology and Biochemistry                                                                 2+1

Soil biota; soil microbial ecology - types of organisms in different soils and their classification, soil microbial biomass, microbial interactions; microbiology and biochemistry of rhizosphere; phyllosphere; soil enzyme activities and importance; microbial transformation of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, iron and manganese in the soils; biochemical composition and biodegradation of soil organic matter and crop residues - humus formation; biofertilizers - production and their use in hill and mountain agriculture; organic wastes and their use for production of biogas and nutrient enriched manures; biotic factors in soil development.


Determination of microbial population and their dynamic equilibrium; microbial biomass; activities of different enzymes; isolation and identification of different beneficial microorganisms - nitrogen fixing, phosphorus solubilizing and growth promoting; biochemical constituents of organic residues - cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and C:N ratio; estimation of decomposition rate of different organic residues; mineralization and immobilization turn over of nitrogen.


Soils 541    Radiotracers in Agricultural Sciences                                                       2+1

Structure and properties of atom and nucleus; nuclear energetics: nuclear and extra nuclear radiations; radioactivity - nature, measurement, half life, units and alpha, beta and gamma decay; interaction of nuclear radiations and particles with matter; nuclear radiation detection and measurement; radiation protection.


Familiarization and handling of counting equipments; special features of radio-isotope laboratory; basic aspects of radiation protection; radioactive sample preparation; counting statistics; preparation of labeled soil and sowing of seeds for A/L values.


Soils 542    Instrumental Techniques in Soil and Plant Analysis                                  1+2

Principles of visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry; emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometry; chromatographic techniques; potentiometry; conductometry; emission and mass spectrophotometry; ion selective electrodes; tracer techniques in soil, water and plant research.


Rapid tissue tests; determination of elemental composition of soils and plants using flame emission, atomic absorption, ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectrophotometers; potentiometric and conductometric titration; chromatographic analysis; use of radioisotopes in soil and plant analysis.


Soils 543    Soil Technology                                                                                        2+1

Scope and introduction; extent, distribution and chemistry of problem soils - acid and acid sulphate, saline, sodic, calcareous and water-logged soils; extent, distribution and physics of waste, eroded and range lands of hills; management of sandy, clay, red, laterite, black cotton and dry-land soils; quality of irrigation water; management of saline water for irrigation.


Characterization of acid, acid sulphate, saline, sodic, calcareous and water-logged soils; lime requirement of acid soils; gypsum requirement of sodic soils; quality aspects of irrigation water; analysis of run-off water.


Soils 544    System Approach in Soils Research                                                          2+0

System concept - its characteristics and significance in soil research; methods in system analysis - flow charts, mathematical models, components, interaction within and among the components; analysis of systems using appropriate models, their validation and sensitivity analysis; system for maximizing soil productivity under different soil, water, nutrient and climatic conditions and cultural practices; use of models for decision support system.


Soils 545    Introduction to GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing                                         2+1

Introduction to geographical information systems, global positioning systems and remote sensing; concept and components of GIS; types of data; data capture; geo-referencing; maps and map projections; components and types of GPS; components of remote sensing; platforms and sensors; RS satellites; image processing, classification and use of RS data in GIS; DEM and DTM; concept and types of database, database operations and query; data output; GIS, GPS and RS applications.


Familiarization with GIS, GPS and remote sensing data products; database creation; creating a new project and adding themes, geo-referencing, registration and interpretation of satellite images; acquisition and interpretation of different types of data; geographical information systems and their utility in land use planning; table operations and query analyses; making charts, layouts and reports; DEM; preparation of thematic maps.



Soils 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                          1+0

Soils 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                         0+1

Soils 600    M. Sc. Research                                                                                         1-18


Soils 601    Advances in Soil Genesis and Classification                                             2+0

Historical review of soil genesis and classification; influence of tectonic and geologic history on soil parent materials vis a vis soil properties in hilly areas; processes of soil formation and pedogenesis of diagnostic horizons with special reference to Shiwalik and western Himalayan region; latest soil classification procedures; FAO classification; standard soil surveys and status in Himachal Pradesh and India.


Soils 602    Soil Micropedology and Micromorphology                                                           2+0

Importance of micropedology and micromorphology in soil formation; petrography and quantification of soil genesis; principles of fabric analysis; soil matrix; voids and void space; pedological features; role and importance of fabric and mineral analyses in soil genesis and classification; techniques of fabric and mineral analysis with special reference to thin section studies and scanning electron microscopy.


Soils 603    Advances in Geomorphology                                                                    2+0

Principles of landform evolution; landforms and landscapes, their relationship with pedons and polypedons; climate and denudational processes; nature and types of drainage basins; sediment load; geometry of channel forms and processes; floodplain and hill slope characteristics, their development and relationship with lithology and soils.


Soils 611    Minerals in Soil Environment                                                                    2+0

Minerals in soil environment, their origin and occurrence; factors and processes of soil formation; qualitative and quantitative characterization of soil minerals by analytical and instrumental methods/techniques; influence on soil properties with special reference to hill soils.


Soil 612    Advances in Soil Chemistry                                                                                    2+0

Occurrence and behavior of essential plant nutrients and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Se, and Hg etc.); physico-chemical, colloidal and surface aspects of the soil system; double layer theory and Donnan theory applied to natural systems; thermodynamics and diffuse double layer  theory of cation exchange equilibria; chemical potential of cations and anions in soil system; properties of ions and organic molecules of insecticides and pesticides; principals and applications of  electrode potentials; lime, phosphorus and potassium potential in relation to nutrient availability; redox potential; ion uptake by plants - different theories; ionic activities in soils.


Soils 613    Advanced Chemistry of Acid Soils                                                            2+0

Modern concept of soil acidity; development of various theories concerning soil acidity and liming; origin, causes and factors of acid soils formation and their distribution; quantification of forms and nature of acidity; cation-exchange characteristics and toxic elements in acid soils; chemistry of aluminum and hydrogen; biological characteristics of acid soils; nutrient availability; lime requirement and liming techniques of acid soils; effect of liming on soils and crops.


Soils 614    Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter                                                               2+0

Chemical composition, transformation, distribution and functions of organic matter in soils; decomposition of soil organic matter under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and synthesis of various organic acids; theories of humus formation; functional groups of humic substances; degradation products, chemical structures, spectroscopic, colloidal electrochemical and ion exchange properties of humid substances; organo-metallic complexes and their stability constants; organic matter and pesticides interaction; clay- organic complexes; effect of chelating agents on the availability of nutrients to the plants.


Soils 615    Advances in Soil Fertility                                                                          2+0

Laws of soil fertility and their application; crop response to nutrients – crop yield, and nutrient content and uptake; methods of fertilizer application; fertilizer evaluation; use of’ isotopes in soil fertility research; chemical and biological indices of nutrient availability in soil and prediction of yield response curves; long term effect of chemical fertilizers and amendments on soil quality; production system — integrated nutrient management, organic and conventional farming.   


Soils 616    Advances in Manures and Fertilizers                                                         2+0

New strategy in manure and fertilizer use in India and abroad; future outlook of fertilizer production and consumption in India and the world; importance of renewable wastes and their recycling; importance of N, P and K mixed and complex fertilizers, their technology and usage; secondary and micro-nutrient fertilizers, their manufacture, technology and usage; use of agricultural chemicals along with fertilizers; use of fertilizers for acid, alkali and submerged soils; residual effects of manures, fertilizes and agricultural chemicals on soils and crops; fertilizer use in horticulture; feed and food quality in relation to fertilizer use.


Soils 617    Micronutrients in Soil Fertility                                                                   2+0

Distribution of micronutrients in parent materials and soils; chemistry of micronutrients in soils; role of micronutrients in plants; factors affecting the availability of micronutrients in soils; forms of micronutrient fertilizers and their mode of application in correcting micronutrient deficiencies; recent trends in micronutrient research.


Soils 618    Research Techniques in Soil Fertility                                                       1+0

Pot culture and field experimental techniques in conducting soil fertility research; use of statistical designs in layout of pot culture and field experiments; a critical evaluation of the current literature on new techniques on soil fertility research.


Soils 621    Soil-Water Relationships                                                                           2+0

Energy relations of soil and plant water; application of Poiseuille’s law, Darcy’s Law and Laplace equation in flow problems; simultaneous flow of water and solutes through porous media; theories of’ infiltration, redistribution and evaporation of water; soil-plant- atmosphere continuum; water uptake pattern by crops; hydraulic properties of roots and flow of water through soil-plant atmosphere continuum; measurement of leaf/xylem water potential; modeling plant-water uptake.


Soils 622    Soil Physical Environment in Relation to Plant Growth                             2+0

Soil physical environment constraints in realizing yield potentials; integrated nutrient management for sustained productivity; root/shoot growth in relation to hydro-thermal regimes; mechanical impedance and aeration status; soil crust and clod formation problems and their prevention; structural management of paddy soils; soil conditioners as modifiers of soil structure; mulching, soil physical environment and plant growth; tillage - historical and modern approaches; soil profile modifications.


Soils 623    Advances in Agrophysics                                                                                       2+0

Domain of agrophysics; laminar and turbulent air flow; solar energy, its interception, dissipation, conversion and distribution; agricultural practices for improvement in solar energy conversion in crops; heat budgets, heat flow, soil temperature and thermal properties; canopy temperature as an index of moisture stress; temperature measurements by different techniques; remote sensing.


Soils 624    Advances in Water Management                                                                           2+0

Physical behaviour of soil-water system; field-water balance and its components; determination/estimation and significance of evapotranspiration in crop plants; methods of irrigation; significance of pressurized irrigation systems in hills; scheduling of irrigation; concept of deficit irrigation; quality of’ irrigation water; management of poor quality irrigation water in agriculture; water-nutrient interactions; integrated water resource management, rainwater harvesting and its recycling; profile water conservation.


Soils 625    Soil Conservation                                                                                      2+0

Soil conservation problem, its magnitude and importance; laboratory and field methods for soil erosion research - rainfall simulation, run off plots and Universal Soil Loss Equation; erosion risk assessment based on reconnaissance, semi-detailed and detailed surveys for mountainous regions; water and sediment yields from Himalayan river basins, an analysis of prospects, problems and solutions; land use, soil and water conservation in hills; watershed as a unit for conservation planning; soil conservation in high altitude cold deserts; social, political and economic aspects of soil conservation.

Soils 631    Advances in Soil Microbiology and Soil Biochemistry                                          2+0

Elements of microbiological ecology; microbial ecology and physiology under aerobic and anaerobic soil environments; humus formation; synthesis and biodegradation of different polysaccharides, aromatic compounds and agricultural chemicals; physiology and biochemistry of biological nitrogen fixation; problems associated with nodulation and other biological nitrogen fixing systems.


Soils 641    Radioisotopes in Soil Research                                                                 1+1

Use of isotopic methods in soil chemistry - kinetics of movement and availability of nutrient ions; soil organic matter research using labeled compounds; carbon-14 dating, organic matter and soil nitrogen; use of isotopes in soil physics - methods based on neutron moderation; use of tracers in soil moisture movement, water use efficiency and irrigation practices; use of isotopes in ion uptake and translocation - mechanisms of nutrient absorption by plant roots, nutrient translocation, foliar uptake of nutrients and losses of metabolites; soil fertility and fertilizer usage - estimation of available nutrients in soils using tracers; fertilizer use efficiency in different crops as evaluated by isotopic methods.


Operational characteristics of counting equipments; determination of efficiency of counting and dead time; determination of half-life of a radioactive isotope; use efficiency of radioactive P and S fertilizers; soil moisture movement using radiotracer techniques.


Soils 642    Analytical Techniques for Soils                                                                 1+2

Principles of emission spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, atomic florescence, nephelometry, turbidimetry and potentiometric titrations; principles of electro-analytical techniques; application of’ polarography, emperometry, coulometry, cation and anion sensitive electrodes; choice and evaluation of an analytical method.


Analysis of soil, water and plant samples with atomic absorption spectrophotometer, emission spectrophotometer and potentiometric titrations; determination of cations and anions in soil and water by polarography, emperometry, cation and anion sensitive electrodes etc.


Soils 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                          1+0

Soils 692    Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                         0+1

Soils 700    Ph. D. Research                                                                                         1-18


Tea Husbandry and Technology


Professors/ equivalent


Sharma, D. K., Sharma, K.  L. 

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Satish Paul, Thakur, B. R.



M. Sc.

Fields of Specialization


Tea Husbandry and Technology

Core Courses                      


THT 501, THT 505, THT 506, THT 507, THT 511



THT 501    Botanical Classification of Tea                                                                    1+1

History of tea industry in India; problems in tea taxonomy; features of taxonomic importance; origin and classification of tea; morphological, anatomical, and chemical basis of classification; biology of tea plant; the true tea species; the ‘non-teas; key to species and subspecies; tea hybrid and genetic pool; hybrid differentiation; tea germplasm and wild tea.


Morphological and anatomical studies of different types of tea; study of tea plant; study of its flowers and roots.


THT  502    Tea Breeding                                                                                                         2+1

History of tea breeding and cytogenetics; cytology; objectives and methods of tea breeding; seed versus clones; selection criteria for yield and quality; vegetative propagation; development of clones and seed varieties; genetics of quantitative and qualitative traits; interspecific hybridization; non-conventional breeding techniques; preservation of tea germplasm and registration of tea cultivars.      


Emasculation and pollination in tea; selection criteria in the field; seed collection; classification and grading; acquaintance with the existing breeding material; differentiation of tea varieties using morphological markers.


THT 503    Climate and Soil for Tea Production                                                                       2+1

Principles of ecology in relation to tea crop pattern; climate wise classification of tea growing areas; physical and chemical properties of tea soils; causes and effects of soil erosion; methods of soil conservation, physical and biological conservation measures; role of tea crop in soil conservation; soils of major tea growing areas; water management, conservation and disposal; influence of climate and soil factors on growth, development and dormancy in tea.


Study of climatic factors on the growth behaviour and crop distribution; soil types, moisture availability and root distribution of different cultivars; study of mulching materials and technology of mulching; special management practices relevant to the prevailing climatic and soil conditions.


THT 504    Tea Propagation and Nursery Management                                                                       1+1

Methods of tea propagation; propagation by seed berries, flowering and fruit setting; seed collection, seed size and its significance; grading, sorting and packaging of seeds; seed nursery; propagation by cuttings, nature of cuttings, use of hormones for rooting of cuttings; grafting and budding techniques; stock-scion relationship; nursery management, manuring, control of diseases and pests in nursery , weed control, shade regulation of nursery and irrigation.


Collection of tea seeds; sorting and grading; viability test, storage and packaging; nursery bed preparations; polythene sleeves filling; seed sowing; shade management; watering, manuring and raising tea nursery; use of growth regulators; planting cutting in polythene sleeves and maintenance of humidity.


THT 505     Land Planning and Young Plantation Management                                              2+1

Land characteristics for tea planting; land preparation for planting; planting of shade trees and their management; catchment planning, terracing, uprooting and rehabilitation; layout, spacing, pits and trenches for tea planting; planting material, planting techniques; management of young tea, mulching, manuring, weed control, irrigation and drainage; pest-diseases and their control.


Study of different layout plans; techniques of planting; methods of brining up of young tea; suitable shade species for tea; prevalent pest-diseases of tea and control measures.


THT 506    Management of Mature Tea Plantations                                                                 2+0 

Tea pruning; objectives, balance of growth and carbohydrate economy; type of pruning, pruning vs. quality; physiology of pruning; pruning cycles adopted in important tea growing countries and impact on yield and quality; rejuvenation pruning, infilling, interplanting; tipping and plucking; role of maintenance foliage; time and height of plucking, plucking of unpruned tea; plucking standards, plucking systems and plucking rounds; mechanical plucking – problems and prospects; weeds in tea estates and their control ; important shade species in tea plantations and their management.


Study on different types of pruning, growth under different pruning cycles and crop distribution under different pruning cycles; study on plucking systems and standards; growth and yield of tea under different kinds of shade species; collection, identification and study of important weed species in tea estates; weed management in tea plantations.


THT 507    Integrated Nutrient Management in Tea Plantations                                              2+1

Soil fertility, basic principles of manuring; foliar analysis as a diagnostic tool, mineral composition, nutrient up take and removal; effects of individual nutrients, mineral deficiency and excess; interaction with other nutrients; organic fertilizers, mulch materials etc.; practical fertilization, mineral fertilizers in common use, profitable fertigation; frequency, method and time of fertilizer application; effect of cessation/ reduction on crop productivity; nutrient -shade interactions; effect of fertilizers on tea quality.


Field identification of deficiencies and toxic symptoms; leaf sampling techniques; preparation of leaf samples and determination of macro and micronutrients; compost preparation and analysis; soil and foliar application of fertilizers; qualitative analysis of tea products.


THT 508     Tea Physiology                                                                                                      1+1

Tea crop development and components of yield; pattern of shoot development; size of harvested shoot, size of developing shoot population within plucking table; dormancy in tea shoots; rhythmic growth in unpruned tea; dormancy cycle in harvested tea; relationship between physiology and yield; photorespiration and dark respiration; effect of day length, air and soil temperature on shoot growth.


Experiment pertaining to the photosynthesis, respiration, growth hormones, seed germination, dormancy, viability and movement of metabolites in tea plants.


THT 509    Integrated Tea Diseases and Insect Pest Management                               2+1

Occurrence and distribution of insect –pest, and pathogens of tea; biology and nature of damage caused by major insect pests; diseases of tea- biotic and abiotic;. biotic - foliar, stem and root  diseases; physical and chemical stresses; integrated tea pest and disease management through different approaches like cultural practices, use of chemicals, host resistance and biological control.


Identification of insect-pests and diseases of tea; monitoring techniques involved in integrated tea diseases and insect-pests management.


THT 510    Chemistry and Pharmacology of Tea                                                                       2+1

Chemical composition of tea leaf; inorganic constituents, nitrogen compounds, carbohydrate and other associated compounds, enzymes, polyphenols, aromatic compounds, vitamins, chlorophyll, carotenoides and volatile compounds; biochemical changes during withering, rolling, fermentation and firing, biochemical basis of quality and pharmaceutical aspects of tea.


Estimation of chemical constituents of tea leaf and made tea; preparation of tea samples from different experiments and their chemical analysis in the laboratory, evaluation of quality from the tea tasters.


         THT 511    Tea Processing Technology                                                                                    1+2

Handling and treatment of tea leaf from field to factory; production of black tea, principle stages of processing, withering, rolling, fermentation, drying, sorting and fibre removal, grading and packing; green and semi-fermented teas; introduction to green tea production of steamed, unshaded green tea, production of pan-fired green tea (chinese green tea); characters of green tea and semi fermented tea (Oolong tea), specialty and herbal tea, instant and organic tea.


General layout plan of tea factory, estimation of moisture content in green leaf, estimation of withering percentage, methods of withering, rolling, fermentation and drying; study on processing of black tea, different types of green tea, herbal tea, instant and organic tea; grading, sorting, packing and storage of tea products in commercial tea factory.


THT 512    Quality Standards, Legislation and World Tea Trade                                 2+0

Impurities- adulteration of tea, adventitious impurities; standards- international standards issued by International organization for standardization; standards issued by other authorities; legislation and international tea export, laws etc.; history of world tea trade; international tea committee, price and auction.


THT 591    M. Sc. Seminar                                                                                           1+0

THT 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                          0+1

THT 600     M. Sc. Research                                                                                         1-18



Vegetable Science and Floriculture


Professors/ equivalent



Jagmohan Kumar, Jamwal, R. S. , Kalia, P. K., Pathania, N. K., Vidyasagar

Associate Professors/ equivalent


Chandel, K. S., Chauhan, Y. S., Khan, A. R., Nandal, T. R., Sant Prakash

Assistant Professors/ equivalent



Chadha, S., Chaudhary, D. R., Desh Raj, Dogra, V., Mittal, P., Sharma, A., Sharma, K. C., Sharma, P., Shakuntala Devi, Sinha, B. N., Sood, S.



M.Sc., Ph. D.

Fields of Specialization


Vegetable Science, Vegetable Breeding, Vegetable Production, Vegetable Seed Production

Core Courses                      



M. Sc.: VSF 501, VSF 511, VSF 521, VSF 522, VSF 541

Ph. D.:  VSF 601, VSF 631



VSF 501    Principles of Vegetable Production                                                                        2+1

Vegetable production problems, role of environmental factors in growth and development of vegetable crops; management of irrigation, drainage and weeds; manuring, protection, rotation and inter cropping, nursery management, vegetable forcing; post harvest handling and physiological disorders.


Description of important varieties of vegetable crops; cultural practices for commercial vegetable production; layout of kitchen garden and vegetable forcing.


VSF 502    Growth and Development of Vegetable Crops                                                       1+1

Definition of growth and development; role of light and temperature in growth and development; dormancy and rest period; physiology of flowering; chemical induction of flowering; sex expression and alteration; fruit set and development, fruit drop, parthenocarpy, seedlessness and biochemical changes associated with fruit ripening; role of  auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and other growth regulators including retardants in vegetable, tuber and spice crops production.


Experiments on breaking dormancy by chemicals; biochemical tests of germination and varietal identification; effect of plant growth regulators, photoperiods and thermoperiods.


VSF 503    Systematics  of Vegetable Crops                                                                2+1

Origin, evolution, history, taxonomy and distribution of potato, cole crops, root crops, bulb crops, solanaceous fruit crops, cucurbits, garden pea, french bean, okra, sweet potato, leafy vegetables, salad and perennial crops; conventional and chemo-taxonomic approaches to differentiate species and varieties of  various crops.


Identification of various species and varieties of different vegetable crops; study of floral biology and wide hybridization.


VSF 511    Fundamentals of Breeding Vegetable Crops                                                          2+1

History of vegetable crops improvement; centres of origin and sources of variability; breeding systems; methods of breeding; heterosis breeding, resistance breeding; male sterility and self incompatibility in vegetable crops; concepts of qualitative and quantitative characters; genotype-environment interaction; use of induced mutations and polyploidy; important sources of resistance in vegetable crops; screening procedures and rating; varietal evaluation, release and notification procedures in India.


Study of floral biology and breeding systems; emasculation, pollination, selfing, bud pollination and hybridization; procedures for maintenance of pure lines, male sterile and self incompatible lines; use of chi-square; working out genetic variability, correlation and hybrid vigour from recorded data; rating procedures for diseases.


VSF 512    Breeding Cross-Pollinated Vegetable Crops                                                           2+1

Cytogenetics, inheritance and improvement of important cross pollinated  vegetable crops, viz., cabbage, cauliflower, onion, cucurbits, radish , carrot, turnip, beet root, beet leaf, spinach and asparagus; history of heterosis breeding and manifestation of hybrid vigour; inbreeding and combining ability.


Practices in selfing, emasculation and cross-pollination; maintenance of genetic stocks/ varieties; identification ,maintenance and use of male sterile and self incompatible lines in hybrid development; selection of desirable plants in segregating populations; estimation of  heterosis, combining ability and gene effects from line x tester and diallel crosses and generation means.


VSF 513    Breeding Self and Often-Cross Pollinated Vegetable Crops                       2+1

Cytogenetics, inheritance pattern and improvement of self-pollinated, often cross   pollinated and asexually propagated vegetable crops, viz., tomato, egg plant, capsicum, garden pea, beans, okra, potato, sweet potato, ginger, turmeric and garlic.


Practices in selfing, emasculation and cross pollination; evaluation of germplasm and segregating  populations for horticultural traits, pest resistance and quality attributes ;  selection of desirable plants in segregating populations; identification, maintenance and use of male sterile lines in hybrid seed production; estimation of heterosis, combining ability and gene effects from line x tester and diallel crosses and generation means.


VSF 521    Cool Season Vegetables                                                                             2+1

Origin, importance and distribution of cool season vegetable crops, viz., potato, cole crops, root vegetables, garden pea, bulb crops, beet leaf, spinach, fenugreek, lettuce, celery, parsley and asparagus; growing practices-soil and climate, varieties, sowing, planting, spacing, nutrition, irrigation, weed control, use of growth regulators, deficiency symptoms, plant protection, harvesting and storage of cool season vegetables; organic farming.   


Identification of improved varieties/hybrids of cool season vegetables; preparation of cropping schemes for commercial farms; study of nutrient deficiency symptoms; experiments on weed control; quality evaluation of vegetables for carotene, protein and dry matter contents.


VSF 522    Warm Season Vegetables                                                                          2+1

Origin, importance and distribution of warm season vegetable crops, viz., tomato, brinjal, hot pepper, sweet pepper, cucurbits, beans, okra, sweet potato ginger, turmeric, colocasia, amaranth, tapioca and elephant’s foot; production practices - soil and climate, varieties, sowing, planting, spacing, nutrition, irrigation, weed control, use of growth regulators, deficiency symptoms, plant protection and harvesting of warm season vegetables; organic farming.


Identification of improved varieties/hybrids of warm season vegetables; preparation of cropping schemes for commercial farms; study of nutrient deficiency symptoms; experiments on weed control; quality evaluation of vegetable crops for sugars, ascorbic acid and capsacin and mineral content.


VSF 523    Commercial Vegetables of Hilly Areas                                                                   2+0

Importance of vegetable cultivation in the hills, principles and methods of raising commercial vegetable crops like peas, cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, capsicum, beans, potato, cucumber, broccoli, asparagus, cardamom, hops, ginger, turmeric, chicory etc.; post harvest handling and marketing; economics of production and nursery management


VSF 524/Agron 503    Agronomy of vegetable crops                                                               3+0

Origin, history, distribution, adaptation, classification, varietal status, morphology, production technology including protected cultivation, quality components and post harvest handling of important vegetable crops : solanaceous crops viz. tomato, brinjal, chillies and bell pepper; cole crops viz. cabbage, cauliflower, sprouting broccoli, knol-khol, brussels sprouts, kale, chinese and red cabbage; root crops viz. radish, carrot, beet, turnip, colocasia, ginger, turmeric, yam, tapioca; bulb crops viz., onion and garlic; beans viz. peas, french bean, broadbean, cowpea, clusterbean, winged bean, lima bean and dolichos bean; cucurbits viz. cucumber, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, sponge gourd, ridge gourd, pumpkin; lady's finger; salad crops viz. lettuce, celery, parsley; leafy vegetables viz. spinach, fenugreek, amaranth, bathu etc.; importance, scope and production of off-season vegetable crops under different agro-ecological situations in hills and mountainous regions.


VSF 531    Tuber and Spice Crops Production and  Breeding                                     2+1

Scope and importance; origin, taxonomy, soil and climate, improved varieties and cultivation practices of important tuber and spice crops like potato, sweet potato, cassava, black pepper, cardamom, clove, coriander, fenugreek, ginger, turmeric, hops and chicory; problems and prospects of their genetic improvement; introduction, selection including clonal selection, hybridization, mutation, polyploidy and heterosis breeding for specific purposes like productivity, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and processing; breeding objectives and advances.


 Identification of seed and planting material, propagation techniques, cultivation practices viz., land preparation, sowing/ transplanting, fertilizer application, weed control, irrigation, harvesting and processing of raw produce; visit and stay of the students at the Indian Institute of Spice Research, Calicut and the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasargod for about 10 days to get acquainted with spice crops.


VSF 541    Vegetable and Spice Crops Seed Production                                             2+1

History and development of vegetable seed industry; role of environmental factors in seed production; development of fruit and seed formation; principles and methods of seed production in sexually and asexually propagated vegetable and seed spice (fenugreek, coriander, cumin and fennel) crops; production of breeder, foundation and certified seeds; hybrid seed production in solanaceous, cole and bulb crops; use of vegetative propagation; selection of shoots in pepper and nutmeg; selection of rhizomes in cardamom, turmeric and ginger; saffron cultivation; seed testing and certification - principles and procedures; seed processing, packaging, storage and marketing; seed legislation.


 Identification of vegetable seeds; testing of vegetable seeds for germination; seed vigour; genetic and physical purity; field inspection and practices in rouging; use of chemicals for improving germination, breaking seed and plant material dormancy; use of seed processing equipment; visit to seed testing lab.


VSF 551    Post-Harvest Technology                                                                                        2+1                                                               

Maturity and ripening processes and factors affecting them; pre and post harvest factors affecting harvested produce; harvesting, grading, pre-cooling, packaging and transportation in relation to post-harvest life; principles and methods of storage; use of plant growth regulators in reducing post-harvest losses; attributes of raw material for different processing purposes; value addition and export of vegetables, tuber crops and spices.


Practices in judging the maturity  indices in various vegetables; pre and post harvest application of growth regulating substances for checking sprouting of tubers and bulbs; practices in grading and packaging vegetable/ produce; respiration measurements and weight loss in harvested produce.


VSF 591    M. Sc. seminar                                                                                            1+0

VSF 592    Special Problem in M. Sc.                                                                                      0+1

VSF 600    M. Sc.  Research                                                                                         1-18


VSF 601    Advances in Vegetable Production                                                             3+0

Current problems associated with vegetable production, quality of vegetable produce, post-harvest handling and marketing; emerging trends in bio-fertilizers use; protected cultivation; modern techniques of harvesting, grading, packaging and storage.


VSF 611    Advances in Vegetable Breeding                                                               3+0

Recent advances in genetics and breeding techniques in potato, tomato, brinjal, capsicum, cucurbits, okra, cole crops, root crops, bulb crops legumes, asparagus, leafy and salad vegetables; biochemical and physiological basis of heterosis; techniques for transfer of desirable characters from allied and alien species; mechanisms of disease and insect pest resistance; in vitro techniques in vegetable crop improvement.


VSF 621    Advances in Vegetable Seed Production                                                   2+0

Current developments in seed industry, seed legislation; problems associated with seed production, processing, storage and marketing of vegetable seeds.


VSF 631    Research Methodology in Vegetable Crops                                                            0+2

Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques for estimation of various enzymes, biochemical constituents and quality attributes; microtomy- fixation and preparation of sections and their staining methods; electrophoresis and its use in vegetable crop improvement; maintenance of male sterile and self-incompatible lines and their use in hybrid seed production.


VSF 691    Ph. D. Seminar                                                                                           1+0

VSF 692    Special Problem in Ph. D.                                                                          0+1

VSF 700    Ph. D.  Research                                                                                         1-18