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Last Updated: May 02, 2022

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Technology generated

Crop Improvement

Varieties developed/ identified:

Maize

                                 i.            Normal maize Varieties / hybrids: Early Composite, Parvati, Girija and    Bajaura Makka and  Sartaj hybrid .

                               ii.            QPM:  HQPM 1 (Single Cross Hybrid)

                             iii.            Sweet Corn: Bajaura sweet corn

                             iv.            Pop corn:  Bajaura Pop corn

                               v.            Baby Corn: VL 78, VL 42, Early Composite, MEH 114 and MEH 133 have been recommended for baby corn production in H.P.                                                                        

Paddy: Naggardhan, Bharigudhan & Varundhan

Wheat: HPW 42, HPW 89, HPW 155, HPW 184, HPW 251, HPW 211, HPW 236, HPW 249, HPW 349, Raj 3777, VL 616, VL 829,

VL 892, VL 907, HS 240, HS 295, HS 420, HS 490 , HS 507 & DH 114.

Barley: Dolma, Sonu, HBL 113, HBL 316, HBL 276, HBL 391, BHS 380, BHS 352, UPB 1008 & VLB 118

Mash: Kullu 4 & PDU-1

Rajmash: Kanchan, Him-1 & Jawala

Lentil: Vipasha

Kulthi: Baizu

Moong: Suketi

 

Entomology

  For the control of fruit borer in tomato, spray 65 gm Asataf 75 SP (aephate  0.05%), 80 ml Karate 5% (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.004 %) or mixture of 70 ml Dipel 8 L (Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki) @ 0.5 L/ ha and 75 ml Thiodan/ Endocel 35 EC (endosulfan 0.025%) per 100 litres of water at flowering. Repeat the spray after 15 days, if needed.

  For the control of leaf miner in pea, spray 80 ml Karate 5% (lambda-  cyhalothrin 0.004%) or 75 ml Ripcord 10 EC (cypermethrin 0.0075%) per 100 litres of water at 40% leaf infestation level (Economic threshold level). Repeat the spray after 15 days, if needed.

  For the combined management of fruit borer, foliar and fruit rot diseases  in tomato, recommendation of the  following spray schedules has been given:

Schedule 1:   i) Spraying  with the mixture of Hexaconazole @ 0.05% (Contaf) & endosulfan (0.05%)  at flowering initiation stage (35 Days after transplanting)  followed by subsequent sprays with mixture of  copper oxy chloride (0.30%) & lambda- cyhalothrin (0.004%)  and only with   mancozeb @ 0.25%  (Indofil M-45) at 15 days interval.

Schedule 2   

  Spraying with the mixture of combi product of Carbedazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP @ 0. 25% (SAAF) and Endosulfan (0.05%)  at flowering initiation stage (35 DAT)  followed by  subsequent sprays with the mixture of Difenconazole 0.03% (Score) and L-cyhalothrin (0.004%), and only with  Propineb @ 0.30% (Antracol 70% WP) at 15 days interval.

  A new pest, got identified as Green Gram Weevil (Pachytychius mungonis Marshall), has be recorded to cause damage to  pods (feed on developing seeds) of black gram and cow pea around Bajaura area of Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh.  For the control of this pest, following recommendation has been given: Spray 1125 ml Endosulfan 35EC (endosulfan  @ 0.05%)/ 750 ml Profenofos 50EC (profenofos  @ 0.05%)/ 562.5 ml Cypermethrin 10EC (cypermethrin @ 0.0075%)/ 600 ml Lambda- cyhalothrin 5 EC (lambda- cyhalothrin @ 0.004%) in 750 litres of water per ha  at pod formation initiation stage i.e. 40 to 45 days of plant emergence of the crop. Repeat the spray after 15 days, if needed.

  For the control of shoot and fruit borer on brinjal, 2 to  3 sprays of the mixture of profenofos (40%) and cypermethrin (4%) @ 0.06% % i. e. 1.0 L/ha of formulated product (Polytrin C 44%) after 40 days of transplantation at 15 days interval were    economically the most viable option followed by  lambda-cyhalothrin  (0.004%) and  cypermethrin  (0.0075%) with an average net additional return of Rs. 25, 026, Rs. 24,828 and Rs. 20,366 per ha, respectively. 

  Following technology has been generated for the management of white grubs infesting  maize:       

i) Use light trap w. e. f. 1st   week of April for population monitoring and trapping of beetles.

ii Adopt mechanical control  of beetles on preferred host tree (s)/plant (s) namely wild apricot, chinnar, willow, beol, wild rose, pomegranate or  apply insecticides viz., chlorpyrifos 20 EC @ 0.05 to 0.1% concentration on most preferred host plant/tree of the beetle during their peak emergence period (last week of June to second week of July) .

iii) Soil application of insecticides namely chlorpyrifos 20 EC @ 0.800 kg a.i./ha, lindane 20 EC @ 0.800 kg a.i../ha  or imidacloprid 200SL @ 0.080 kg a.i./ha about 20-25 days after the  mass   emergence of beetles.

  Devised a capsule cup technique for the control of wasps predating upon honeybees. Poison bait of fenitrothion - `gur at 1000 ppm sent @ 65 to110 mg / capsule (depending upon the wasp species) on the thorax of one wasp into its nest was sufficient to kill up to 30 other wasps. The technique is useful when nests of the wasps are in inaccessible or difficult terrenes.

 

Vegetable Science

 Varieties developed/identified:

 Garlic : GHC-1

 Garden Pea : GC 477, PB 89, Palam Sumol (main season) and  Palam Triloki (Early) have been identified for release in the state

 French bean : Bajaura Selection -1(Palam Mridula)

 Methi : Pusa Kasuri

 Other recommendations:

 Garlic: Enhancing storage life of garlic under H. P. Conditions with the application of borax @ 1000 ppm two weeks prior to harvesting of bulbs for large scale storage and hanging of bulbs for self consumption or seed material.

 

Plant Pathology

  Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 WP @ 2.5g/kg seed followed by three sprays at 15 days interval with the same fungicide @ 0.1% (starting from flowering onward or at the first appearance of disease) effectively controlled angular leaf spot of rajmash.

  Seed treatment with carbendazim 50 WP @ 2.5g/kg seed followed by 4-5 sprays of carbendazim 50 WP (0.1%) or mancozeb 75 WP (0.25%) at 15 days interval with the same fungicide @ 0.1% (starting from flowering onward or at the first appearance of disease) effectively controlled Ascochyta blight of pea.

  Soil solarization gave significantly higher seed germination and lower pre and post emergence damping off in tomato.

  Carboxin @ 2.5 gm, Carbendazim @ 2.0 gm and F-100 @ 3.5 gm  per kg of seed were most effective in controlling loose smut wheat.

  Raxil @ 2 gm followed by carbendazim @2.5 gm and F-100 @ 3.5 gm per kg seed were found effective in managing root rot/ wilt complex of peas and also improved the yield.

  Among different spray schedules evaluated for the management of stemphylium blight of garlic, a 3- spray schedule consisting of spraying with companion (0.25%) with the appearance of disease, followed by the spray of Score (0.01%) after 15 days of the first spray, followed by third spray with Indofil M-45 (0.25%) only after 15 days of second spray was found to be the most effective and economical treatment giving 91.6% disease control over the control treatment (no spray). The other schedule consist of Zineb+Contaf    ( 1st spray @ 0.2%), Score (2nd spray @ 0.01%) and Indofil M45(3rd spray @ 0.25%) were found equally effective in controlling stemphylium blight giving 88.4% disease control.

  Three sprays with Ridomil MZ @ 0.25% at 15 days interval or combination of Ridomil MZ and Copper oxychloride/ Mancozeb were found effective for the management of phytophthora blight .

  Spray with a mixture of contaf (0.05%) and endosulfan (0.05%) at flowering initiation stage (35 days of transplanting)  followed by the spray of mixture of  copper oxy chloride  (0.30%) and lambda- cyhalothrin (0.004%) after 15 days of the first spray and third spray with Indofil  M- 45 (0.25 %) only after  15 days  of second spray were found effective for the management of fruit borer, fruit rot and foliar blight of tomato.

  A number of genotypes of maize and wheat and barley were screened under All India coordinated Research Projects and resistant sources against Turcicum leaf blight in maize and yellow rust in wheat and barley were identified.

  Two sprays of Tilt @ 0.1% at 15 days interval was found most effective in controlling yellow rust.

  Two sprays of Bayleton or Tilt @ 0. 1% at 15 days interval was found most effective in controlling yellow rust.

Agronomy

  Maize cultivars; Early Composite, Parvati, Sartaj and Girija, Bajaura Makka, Bajaura Makka-1, Bajaura Sweet corn, Bajaura Pop corn, HQPM 1 of maize and hybrid VL 42 & Composite VL 78 of baby corn have been released in the state and number of hybrids and composites have been released at national level using data of agronomy trials.

  Under rainfed conditions when N fertilizers are not available at sowing time then 1/3 N can be applied after 2-4 weeks of sowing  and remaining 2/3 N in two equal splits at  knee high and pre-tasseling stages.

  In maize and blackgram intercropping system, no additional fertilizer dose is required but in maize+horsegram system, 50% of the recommended dose (7.5 kg N+ 22.5 kg P2O5/ha) should be applied to horsegram.

  Complete package of practices for baby corn cultivation has been developed and recommended at national level.

  On the basis of six years (1996 to 2002) agronomic experimentation, a maize Composite VL-78 has been identified as suitable variety for babycorn purpose. This variety gave statistically at per yield to that of hybrid VL-42 but significantly higher yield than Early Composite.

  On the basis of 3 crop rations data, it was concluded that to obtain maximum grain yield of maize-wheat sequence under rainfed conditions, a dose of 100-125 % of recommended N to both the crops and 10 t/ha FYM to maize crop may be applied in soils having medium to high status of available P and K. The dose of fertilizers should be reduced to half under severe drought conditions.

  In maize-wheat cropping system, response of P and K fertilizers was not observed   during initial years. However, integrated use of FYM @ 10 t/ha, N & P @ 50 % of recommended dose sustained crop productivity and soil health after 6 years..

  In maizewheat cropping system, 120 g/ha N along with 15 t/ha FYM was found most suitable dose for maize and 90 kg/ha N and 15 t/ha FYM for wheat.

  Nutrient requirement of Girija variety of maize (released by the Centre) was worked out in maize-wheat cropping system under rainfed conditions. Application of 90 Kg/ha N +FYM @ 15 t/ha was most suitable fertilizer dose for this variety.

  Nitrogen requirement of newly released single cross maize hybrid (HQPM-1) has been worked out.

  In maize, to control both grassy and broad leaved weeds, application of Atrataf or Masstaf or Rasayanazine 50 WP in 750 L water per ha within 2 days of sowing has been recommended. However, it can also be applied within 10 days of sowing.

  In maize and blackgram/horsegram intercropping system, weeding and hoeing should be done within 5 weeks of sowing to get maximum return.

  For the management of Cyperus rotundus, foliar spray of the mixture of Glyphosate 0.75 L/ha + 0.5% (NH4)2SO4 on its actively growing plants  after harvest of wheat and  at least  two weeks before sowing of maize, has been found most effective  and  economical.

  A row to row spacing of 20 cm is recommended for higher grain yield compared to normal spacing of 23 cm under irrigated conditions in the NHZ.

  A dose of 60kg N/ha is recommended (Package of Practices of rabi crops) for the economic grain and fodder production of dual purpose barely varieties which must be applied  in three splits 1/3 as basal, 1/3 at 75 days after  fodder cut and 1/3 at the flowering stage under rainfed conditions in Himachal Pradesh.

  In grain barley, the recommended dose of inorganic nutrients can be replaced by 25% through the application of either FYM or vermicompost under integrated nutrient management. 

 

 

Contingent Crop Planning:

In mid-hills sub-humid zone, if the major crop of maize could not be sown due to delayed onset of monsoon or fails due to adverse climatic conditions, the sowing of blackgram/horsegram could be done up to first week of August.

In case winter rains are received very late or it is not possible to sow crops till 10th of January, sowing of gobhi sarson cv. Sheetal is most profitable up to first fortnight of January amongst all the rabi crops. However, depending up on domestic requirements of farmers and availability of seed and other inputs, sowing of wheat cv. HS 295 could also be done up to first week of January. Further delay in sowing in the third week of January wheat cv. Aradhna, lentil cv. Vipasha, mustard cv. Varuna and rapeseed cv. BSH 1should be preferred.

 

Soil Science

  Evolved integrated plant nutrient system for vegetable pea and potato grown under cold desert and dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh.

  Recommended NP fertilizers applied through DAP along with 80 kg/ha mineral gypsum was found best management practice for realizing higher productivity of vegetable pea and garlic.

  Developed integrated plant nutrient system for more than five dominant vegetable based cropping systems under mid hills of Himachal Pradesh

  Recommended NPK+25 Kg/ka ZnSO4 was found best treatment for increasing wheat yield in maize-wheat sequence of mid hills.

  100% NPK+20t FYM/ha was found best combination for realizing higher yield of frenchbean and pea crops. However, cauliflower need application of 150% of recommended NPK+ 20 t FYM/ha.

  The vermicompost (5 t/ha) and FYM (10 t/ha) must be applied in combination for realizing higher yield of wheat in a maize-wheat system.

  FYM and VC are better source for improving soil organic carbon. However, for increasing the availability of NPK, the best organic sources are FYM +biodynamic or FYM+biodynamic+ panhagavaya.

  The organic management practice is helpful in improving soil organic carbon content in comparison to inorganic and integrated management practice.