Veterinary Anatomy
Last Updated: July 20, 2015


The Department of  Veterinary Anatomy and Histology  was the first to be created one of the six departments that were originally set up to start the Veterinary College in July, 1986 and the Master Programme was started in 1992-93.Five students so far completed their M.V.Sc. degree. The PhD Programme was started in 2004. Two students have joined the PhD Programme in the Department. The Department has all the basic facilities for the undergraduate teaching.

                        In addition to the teaching mandate the department worked on the Gross Anatomy, Histology, Histochemistry including postnatal development of the female genital system of Gaddi sheep and goat have been conducted. Seasonal changes during different phases of estrus cycle and senility have also been worked out. The Hypothalamo-hypophysio-Gonadal axis of these two animals has also been studied in detail. The heart musculature of buffalo and goat was studied by macerating the heart with dilute acid. The heart musculature of auricles and ventricles, showed “common” and “special” fibres in both the species.

                        Research on yak established the vertebral formula of the animal to be C7 T14 L5 S6 Cy15 with 14 pairs ribs; Gross anatomy of diaphragm, its venous drainage, and nervous system was studied to facilitate surgery. Gross anatomy of various bone, joints and ligaments  of yak was also studied and compared with other bovines- Visceral organs of digestive, respiratory, urinary and genital system were also studied. Research work on Spiti pony included the topographic anatomical description of the major splanchnic organs (lungs, digestive tube, spleen, thyroid and kidneys) reported in the form of a text atlas. Gross biometrical parameters of the different organs of female genital system (ovary, oviduct, uterus etc) of spiti pony were also reported.

               Some rare developmental anomalies have been recorded in the domestic animals. A buffalo calf was found to be born with brain agenesis. In horses also certain anomalies have been detected. There was loss of teeth in upper jaw along with con-comitent increase in the size of lower cheek tooth in the opposite jaw. This enlarged tooth extended into the gap present in the opposite jaw. Similarly another variation was observed in the arterial blood supply to the thoracic wall of a buffalo calf. Generally one intercostal artery supplied one intercostal space. But in the buffalo calf under reference some intercostal arteries supplied one intercostal space. But in buffalo calf under reference some intercostal arteries supplied two intercostal spaces. A buffalo calf with 14 pair of ribs was also reported.

               As a part of the research work on wild animals, the tongue of big cat and small cat and pattern of the distribution of the papillae on its (tongue) was studied .The anatomy of structure of head region of wild cat have been recorded. Gross morphological features of civet cat and porcupines have also been documented and special features of integuments with reference to biomechanical adaptations in relation to its habit and habitat have been elucidated.

               Research work on the museum techniques showed that glycerin, a costly chemical, used generally for display of specimens can be substituted with cheaper and easily available materials like rectified spirit and 10% formalin. It was also found that water-resistant colors like fabric paints (Fevicry® can be used to paint various body structures like glands, arteries, ligaments etc. in wet specimens. Structures painted with fabric colors in the department retained their original colors for more than 5 years without fading.

               The commercial herbal drugs (Himax® and Teeburb® proved quite effective in healing of the cutaneous wound when used in combination and proved to be cheaper compared to other proprietary preparations. Studies on saliva, turmeric and Neem were also conducted and the efficacy of Neem oil, in paraffin paste (50:50) was found most effective.

     Studies on the Gross Anatomy, Histology, and Histochemistry of the intestine of Gaddi sheep were completed and all the components present were recorded.


          The research work was carried out on the organs of the male genital system (Testis, epididymis, vas deferens, accessory sex glands, viz., ampulla of the vas deferens seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulb urethral glands) and the pineal gland of 24 Gaddi goats and 24 Gaddi sheep. The animals were those, from the local slaughter houses, who were apparently healthy. Six animals of each species were used in spring (March to May), summer (June to August), autumn (September to November) and winter (December to February) seasons of the year. Study revealed that the autumn is the best breeding season in Gaddi sheep and Gaddi goat.

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