B.Sc. (Agr.) Honours
Soils 111: Fundamentals of Soil Science Credit hours: 3(2+1)
Soil as a natural body, Pedological and edaphological concepts of soil; Soil genesis: soil forming rocks and minerals; weathering, processes and factors of soil formation; Soil Profile, components of soil; Soil physical properties: soil-texture, structure, density and porosity, soil colour, consistence and plasticity; Elementary knowledge of soil taxonomy classification and soils of India; Soil water retention, movement and availability; soil air, composition, gaseous exchange, problem and plant growth; source, amount and flow of heat in soil; soil temperature and plant growth; Soil reaction-pH, soil acidity and alkalinity, buffering, effect of pH on nutrient availability; soil colloids - inorganic and organic; silicate clays: constitution and properties; sources of charge ion exchange, cation exchange capacity, base saturation; soil organic matter: composition, properties and its influence on soil properties; humic substances - nature and properties; soil organisms: macro and microorganisms, their beneficial and harmful effects; Soil pollution - behaviour of pesticides and inorganic contaminants, prevention and mitigation of soil pollution.
Study of soil profile in field. Study of soil sampling tools, collection of representative soil sample, its processing and storage. Study of soil forming rocks and minerals. Determination of soil density, moisture content and porosity. Determination of soil texture by feel and Bouyoucos Methods. Studies of capillary rise phenomenon of water in soil column and water movement in soil. Determination of soil pH and electrical conductivity. Determination of cation exchange capacity of soil. Study of soil map. Determination of soil colour. Demonstration of heat transfer in soil. Estimation of organic matter content of soil.
Soils 242: Problematic Soils and their Management Credit Hours: 2(2+0)
Soil quality and health, Distribution of Waste land and problem soils in India. Their categorization based on properties. Reclamation and management of Saline and Sodic soils, Acid soils, Acid Sulphate soils, Eroded and Compacted soils, Flooded soils, Polluted soils.
Irrigation water – quality and standards, utilization of saline water in agriculture. Remote sensing and GIS in diagnosis and management of problem soils.
Multipurpose tree species (MPTs), bio remediation through MPTs of soils, land capability and classification, land suitability classification. Problematic soils under different Agroeco systems.
Soils 353: Manures, Fertilizers and Soil Fertility Management Credit Hours: 3(2+1)
Introduction and importance of organic manures, properties and methods of preparation of bulky and concentrated manures. Green/leaf manuring. Integrated nutrient management.
Chemical fertilizers: classification, composition and properties of major nitrogenous, phosphatic, potassic fertilizers, secondary & micronutrient fertilizers, Complex fertilizers, nano fertilizers Soil amendments, Fertilizer Storage, Fertilizer Control Order.
History of soil fertility and plant nutrition, criteria of essentiality, role, deficiency and toxicity symptoms of essential plant nutrients, Mechanisms of nutrient transport to plants, factors affecting nutrient availability to plants. Chemistry of soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur and micronutrients. Soil fertility evaluation, Soil testing. Critical levels of different nutrients in soil. Forms of nutrients in soil, plant analysis, rapid plant tissue tests. Indicator plants. Methods of fertilizer recommendations to crops. Factor influencing nutrient use efficiency (NUE), methods of application under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
Introduction of analytical instruments and their principles, calibration and applications, Colorimetry and flame photometry. Estimation of available N in soils. Estimation of available P in soils. Estimation of available K in soils, Estimation of available S in soils. Estimation of available Ca and Mg in soils. Estimation of available Zn in soils. Estimation of N in plants. Estimation of P in plants. Estimation of K in plants. Estimation of S in plants.
Soils. 354: Biopesticides & Biofertilizers Credit hours: 3(2+1)
History and concept of biopesticides. Importance, scope and potential of biopesticide. Definitions, concepts and classification of biopesticides viz. pathogen, botanical pesticides, and biorationales. Botanicals and their uses. Mass production technology of bio-pesticides. Virulence, pathogenicity and symptoms of entomopathogenic pathogens and nematodes. Methods of application of biopesticides. Methods of quality control and Techniques of biopesticides. Impediments and limitation in production and use of biopesticide.
Biofertilizers - Introduction, status and scope. Structure and characteristic features of bacterial biofertilizers- Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium and Frankia; Cynobacterial biofertilizers- Anabaena, Nostoc, Hapalosiphon and fungal biofertilizers- AM mycorrhiza and ectomycorrhizal. Nitrogen fixation -Free living and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and phosphate mobilization, K solubilization. Production technology: Strain selection, sterilization, growth and fermentation, mass production of carrier based and liquid biofertilizers. FCO specifications and quality control of biofertilizers. Application technology for seeds, seedlings, tubers, sets etc. Biofertilizers -Storage, shelf life, quality control and marketing. Factors influencing the efficacy of biofertilizers.
To study about mass production technology of important biopesticides. Identification of important botanicals. Visit to biopesticide laboratory in nearby area. Field visit to explore naturally infected cadavers. Identification of entomopathogenic entities in field condition. Quality control of biopesticides.
Isolation and purification of Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium, P-solubilizers and cyanobacteria. Mass multiplication and inoculums production of biofertilizers. Isolation of AM fungi -Wet sieving method and sucrose gradient method. Mass production of AM inoculants.
Note:- To be jointly taught by Department of Soil Science, Plant Pathology and Entomology.
Master’s & Doctoral Programmes
*Compulsory for Master’s programme
SOILS 501 SOIL PHYSICS (2+1)
UNIT I: Scope of soil physics and its relation with other branches of soil science; soil as a three phase system.
UNIT II: Soil texture, textural classes, mechanical analysis, specific surface.
UNIT III: Soil consistence; dispersion and workability of soils; soil compaction and consolidation; soil strength; swelling and shrinkage - basic concepts.
UNIT IV: Soil structure - genesis, types, characterization and management soil structure; soil aggregation, aggregate stability; soil tilth, characteristics of good soil tilth; soil crusting - mechanism, factors affecting and evaluation; soil conditioners; puddling, its effect on soil physical properties; clod formation.
UNIT V: Soil water: content and potential, soil water retention, soil-water constants, measurement of soil water content, energy state of soil water, soil water potential, soil-moisture characteristic curve; hysteresis, measurement of soil-moisture potential.
UNIT VI: Water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils, Poiseuille’s law, Darcy’s law; hydraulic conductivity, permeability and fluidity, hydraulic diffusivity; measurement of hydraulic conductivity in saturated and unsaturated soils.
UNIT VII: Infiltration; internal drainage and redistribution; evaporation; hydrologic cycle, field water balance; soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, hypotheses of soil water availability
UNIT IX: Composition of soil air; renewal of soil air - convective flow and diffusion; measurement of soil aeration; aeration requirement for plant growth; soil air management.
UNIT X: Modes of energy transfer in soils; energy balance; thermal properties of soil; measurement of soil temperature; soil temperature in relation to plant growth; soil temperature management.
Mechanical analysis by pipette and international methods, Measurement of Atterberg limits, Aggregate analysis - dry and wet, Measurement of soil-water content by different methods, Measurement of soil-water potential by using tensiometer and gypsum blocks, Determination of soil-moisture characteristics curve and computation of pore-size distribution, Determination of hydraulic conductivity under saturated and unsaturated conditions, Determination of infiltration rate of soil, Determination of aeration porosity and oxygen diffusion rate, Soil temperature measurements by different methods, Estimation of water balance components in bare and cropped fields.
SOILS 502 SOIL FERTILITY AND FERTILIZER USE (3+1)
UNIT I: Soil fertility and soil productivity; nutrient sources – fertilizers and manures; essential plant nutrients – functions and deficiency symptoms, laws of soil fertility
UNIT II: Soil and fertilizer nitrogen – sources, forms, immobilization and mineralization, nitrification, denitrification; biological nitrogen fixation -types, mechanism, microorganisms and factors affecting; nitrogenous fertilizers and their fate in soils; management of fertilizer nitrogen in lowland and upland conditions for high fertilizer use efficiency, leaf colour chart for N recommendations
UNIT III: Soil and fertilizer phosphorus - forms, immobilization, mineralization, reactions in acid and alkali soils; factors affecting phosphorus availability in soils; phosphatic fertilizers - behavior in soils and managementunder field conditions.
UNIT IV: Potassium - forms, equilibrium in soils and its agricultural significance; mechanism of potassium fixation; management of potassium fertilizers under field conditions.
UNIT V: Sulphur - source, forms, fertilizers and their behavior in soils; calcium and magnesium– factors affecting their availability in soils; management of sulphur, calcium and magnesium fertilizers.
UNIT VI: Micronutrients – critical limits in soils and plants; factors affecting their availability and correction of their deficiencies in plants; role of chelates in nutrient availability.
UNIT VII: Common soil test methods for fertilizer recommendations; quantity intensity relationships; soil test crop response correlations and response functions.
UNIT VIII: Fertilizer use efficiency; blanket fertilizer recommendations – usefulness and limitations; site-specificnutrient management; plant need based nutrient management; integrated nutrient management.
UNIT IX: Soil fertility evaluation - biological methods, soil, plant and tissue tests; soil quality in relation to sustainable agriculture
Principles of colorimetry, Flame-photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, Chemical analysis of soil for total and available nutrients, Analysis of plants for essential elements
SOILS 503 SOIL CHEMISTRY (2+1)
UNIT I: Chemical (elemental) composition of the earth’s crust.
UNIT II: Elements of equilibrium thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, electrochemistry and chemical kinetics.
UNIT III: Soil colloids: inorganic and organic colloids - origin of charge, concept of point of zero-charge (PZC) and its dependence on variable-charge soil components, surface charge characteristics of soils; diffuse double layer theories of soil colloids, zeta potential, stability, electrometric properties of soil colloids; sorption properties of soil colloids; soil organic matter – characterization of organic matter, fractionation of soil organic matter and different fractions, clay-organic interactions.
UNIT IV: Ion exchange processes in soil; cation exchange- theories based on law of mass action (Kerr-Vanselow, Gapon equations, hysteresis, Jenny’s concept), adsorption isotherms, donnan-membrane equilibrium concept, Different approaches to describe cation exchange equilibria, law of mass action and solubility product, factors affecting cation exchange equilibria in soils, AEC, CEC; experimental methods to study ion exchange phenomena and practical implications in plant nutrition.
UNIT V: Potassium, phosphate and ammonium fixation in soils covering specific and non-specific sorption; precipitation-dissolution equilibria; management aspects.
UNIT VI: Chemistry of acid soils and their management; active and potential acidity; lime potential, sub-soil acidity.
UNIT VII: Chemistry of salt-affected soils and amendments; soil pH, ECe, ESP, SAR and important relations; soil management and amendments.
UNIT VIII: Chemistry and electrochemistry of submerged soils.
Determination of CEC and AEC of soils, Analysis of equilibrium soil solution for pH, EC, Eh by the use of Eh-pH meter and conductivity meter, Determination of point of zero-charge and associated surface charge characteristics by the serial potentiometric titration method, Adsorption-desorption of phosphate/sulphate by soil using simple adsorption isotherm, Determination of titratable acidity of an acid soil by BaCl2-TEA method, Determination of lime requirement of an acid soil by buffer method, Determination of gypsum requirement of an alkali soil
SOILS 504 SOIL MINERALOGY, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND SURVEY (2+1)
UNIT I: Fundamentals of crystallography, space lattice, coordination theory, isomorphism and polymorphism.
UNIT II: Classification, structure, chemical composition and properties of clay minerals; genesis and transformation of crystalline and non-crystalline clay minerals; identification techniques; amorphous soil constituents and other non-crystalline silicate minerals and their identification; clay minerals in Indian soils.
UNIT III: Factors of soil formation, soil formation models; soil forming processes; weathering of rocks and mineral transformations; soil profile; weathering sequences of minerals with special reference to Indian soils.
UNIT IV: Concept of soil individual; soil classification systems – historical developments and modern systems of soil classification with special emphasis on soil taxonomy; soil classification, soil mineralogy and soil maps –usefulness.
UNIT V: Soil survey and its types; soil survey techniques - conventional and modern; soil series – characterization and procedure for establishing soil series; benchmark soils and soil correlations; soil survey interpretations; soil mapping, thematic soil maps, cartography, mapping units, techniques for generation of soil maps.
UNIT VI: Landform – soil relationship; major soil groups of India with special reference to respective states; land capability classification and land irrigability classification; land evaluation and land use type (LUT) – concept and application; approaches for managing soils and landscapes in the framework of agro-ecosystem.
Identification and quantification of minerals in soil fractions, Morphological properties of soil profile in different landforms, Classification of soils using soil taxonomy, Calculation of weathering indices and its application in soil formation, Grouping soils using available data base in terms of soil quality, Aerial photo and satellite data interpretation for soil and land use, Cartographic techniques for preparation of base maps and thematic maps, processing of field sheets,, compilation and obstruction of maps in different scales, Land use planning exercises using conventional and RS tools
SOILS 505 SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION (2+1)
UNIT I: History, distribution, identification and description of soil erosion problems in India.
UNIT II: Forms of soil erosion; effects of soil erosion and factors affecting soil erosion; types and mechanisms of water erosion; raindrops and soil erosion; rainfall erosivity - estimation as EI30 index and kinetic energy; factors affecting water erosion; empirical and quantitative estimation of water erosion; methods of measurement and prediction of runoff; soil losses in relation to soil properties and precipitation.
UNIT III: Wind erosion- types, mechanism and factors affecting wind erosion; extent of problem in the country.
UNIT IV: Principles of erosion control; erosion control measures – agronomical and engineering; erosion control structures - their design and layout.
UNIT V: Soil conservation planning; land capability classification; soil conservation in special problem areas such as hilly, arid and semi-arid regions, waterlogged and wet lands.
UNIT VI: Watershed management - concept, objectives and approach; water harvesting and recycling; flood control in watershed management; socioeconomic aspects of watershed management; case studies in respect to monitoring and evaluation of watersheds; use of remote sensing in assessment and planning of watersheds.
Determination of different soil erodibility indices - suspension percentage, dispersion ratio, erosion ratio, clay ratio, clay/moisture equivalent ratio, percolation ratio, raindrop erodibility index, Computation of kinetic energy of falling rain drops, Computation of rainfall erosivity index using rain gauge data, Visits to a watershed
SOILS 506 SOIL BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY (2+1)
UNIT I: Soil biota, soil microbial ecology, types of organisms in different soils; soil microbial biomass; microbial interactions; un-culturable soil biota.
UNIT II: Microbiology and biochemistry of root-soil interface; phyllosphere; soil enzymes, origin, activities and importance; soil characteristics influencing growth and activity of microflora.
UNIT III: Microbial transformations of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, iron and manganese in soil; biochemical composition and biodegradation of soil organic matter and crop residues, humus formation; cycles of important organic nutrients.
UNIT IV: Biodegradation of pesticides, organic wastes and their use for production of biogas and manures; biotic factors in soil development; microbial toxins in the soil.
UNIT V: Preparation and preservation of farmyard manure, animal manures, rural and urban composts and vermicompost.
UNIT VI: Biofertilizers – definition, classification, specifications, method of production and role in crop production.
Determination of soil microbial population, Soil microbial biomass, Elemental composition, fractionation of organic matter and functional groups, Decomposition of organic matter in soil, Soil enzymes, Measurement of important soil microbial processes such as ammonification, nitrification, N2 fixation, S oxidation, P solubilization and mineralization of other micro nutrients, Study of rhizosphere effect
SOILS 507 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY (2+0)
UNIT I: General introduction to geology and geochemistry, major and minor morphogenic and genetic landforms, study of schematic landforms and their elements with special reference to India.
UNIT II: Methodology of geomorphology, its agencies, erosion and weathering; soil and physiography relationships; erosion surface of soil landscape.
UNIT III: Geochemical classification of elements; geo-chemical aspects of weathering and migration of elements; geochemistry of major and micronutrients and trace elements.
SOILS 508 RADIOISOTOPES IN SOIL AND PLANT STUDIES (1+1)
UNIT I: Atomic structure, radioactivity and units; radioisotopes - properties and decay principles; nature and properties of nuclear radiations; interaction of nuclear radiations with matter
UNIT II: Principles and use of radiation monitoring instruments - proportional, Geiger Muller counter, solid and liquid scintillation counters; neutron moisture meter, mass spectrometry, auto radiography
UNIT III: Isotopic dilution techniques used in soil and plant research; use of stable isotopes; application of isotopes in studies on organic matter, nutrient transformations, ion transport, rooting pattern and fertilizer use efficiency; carbon dating
UNIT IV: Doses of radiation exposure, radiation safety aspects regulatory aspects, collection, storage and disposal of radioactive wastes
Storage and handling of radioactive materials, Determination of half life and decay constant, Preparation of soil and plant samples for radioactive measurements, Setting up of experiment on fertilizer use efficiency and cation exchange equilibria using radioisotopes, Determination of A, E and L values of soil using 32P/ 65Zn, Use of neutron probe for moisture determination , Sample preparation and measurement of 15N enrichment by mass spectrophotometery/ emission spectrometry
SOILS 509 SOIL, WATER AND AIR POLLUTION (2+1)
UNIT I: Soil, water and air pollution problems associated with agriculture, nature and extent.
UNIT II: Nature and sources of pollutants – agricultural, industrial, urban wastes, fertilizers and pesticides, acid rains, oil spills etc.; air, water and soil pollutants - their CPC standards and effect on plants, animals and human beings.
UNIT III: Sewage and industrial effluents – their composition and effect on soil properties/health, and plant growth and human beings; soil as sink for waste disposal.
UNIT IV: Pesticides – their classification, behavior in soil and effect on soil microorganisms.
UNIT V: Toxic elements – their sources, behavior in soils, effect on nutrients availability, effect on plant and human health.
UNIT VI: Pollution of water resources due to leaching of nutrients and pesticides from soil; emission of greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
UNIT VIII: Remediation/amelioration of contaminated soil and water; remote sensing applications in monitoring and management of soil and water pollution.
Sampling of sewage waters, sewage sludge, solid/liquid industrial wastes, polluted soils and plants, Estimation of dissolved and suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate and ammonical nitrogen and phosphorus, heavy metal content in effluents, Heavy metals in contaminated soils and plants
SOILS 510 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES FOR SOIL, WATER AND CROP STUDIES (2+1)
UNIT I: Introduction and history of remote sensing; sources, propagation of radiations in atmosphere; interactions with matter.
UNIT II: Sensor systems - camera, microwave radiometers and scanners; fundamentals of aerial photographs and image processing and interpretations.
UNIT III: Application of remote sensing techniques - land use soil surveys, crop stress and yield forecasting, prioritization in watershed and drought management, wasteland identification and management.
UNIT IV: Significance and sources of the spatial and temporal variability in soils, variability in relation to size of sampling; classical and geo-statistical techniques of evaluation of soil variability.
UNIT V: Introduction to GIS and its application for spatial and non-spatial soil and land attributes.
Familiarization with different remote sensing equipments and data products, Interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite data for mapping of land resources, Analysis of variability of different soil properties with classical and geostatistical technique, Creation of data files in a database program, Use of GIS for soil spatial simulation and analysis, To enable the students to conduct soil survey and interpret soil survey reports in terms of land use planning
SOILS 511 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS IN SOIL AND PLANT ANALYSIS (0+2)
UNIT I: Preparation of solutions for standard curves, analytical reagents, qualitative reagents, indicators and standard solutions for acid-base, oxidation-reduction and complexometric titration; soil, water and plant sampling techniques, their processing and handling.
UNIT II: Determination of nutrient potentials and potential buffering capacities of soils for phosphorus and potassium; estimation of phosphorus, ammonium and potassium fixation capacities of soils.
UNIT III: Principles of visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometery, atomic absorption, flame-photometry, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry; chromatographic techniques, mass spectrometry and X-ray defractrometery; identification of minerals by X-ray by different methods.
UNIT IV: Electrochemical titration of clays; determination of cation and anion exchange capacities of soils; estimation of exchangeable cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K); estimation of root cation exchange capacity.
SOILS 512 SYSTEM APPROACHES IN SOIL AND CROP STUDIES (2+1)
UNIT I: Systems concepts - definitions, general characteristics; general systems theory; systems thinking, systems dynamics, systems behavior and systems study.
UNIT II: Model: definition and types- Empirical and mechanistic; mathematical models and their types; modeling: concepts, objectives, processes, simulation models, their verification and validation, calibration; representation of continuous systems simulation models - procedural
UNIT III: Simulation - meaning and threats; simulation experiment, its design and analysis.
UNIT IV: Application of simulation models in understanding system behavior, optimizing system performance, evaluation of policy options under different soil, water, nutrient, climatic and cultural conditions; decision support system, use of simulation models in decision support system.
Use of flow chart in the program writing , Writing a small example simulation model program , Conducting simulation experiments in DSSAT, Conducting simulation experiments in WOFOST, Conducting simulation experiments in EPIC with requirement of report and conclusion, Computation of fertilizer equations using STCR Model
SOILS 513 MANAGEMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SOILS AND WATERS (2+1)
UNIT I: Area and distribution of problem soils – acidic, saline, sodic and physically degraded soils; origin and basic concept of problematic soils, and factors responsible.
UNIT II: Morphological features of saline, sodic and saline-sodic soils; characterization of salt-affected soils - soluble salts, ESP, pH; physical, chemical and microbiological properties.
UNIT III: Management of salt-affected soils; salt tolerance of crops - mechanism and ratings; monitoring of soil salinity in the field; management principles for sandy, clayey, red lateritic and dry land soils.
UNIT IV: Acid soils - nature of soil acidity, sources of soil acidity; effect on plant growth, lime requirement of acid soils; management of acid soils; biological sickness of soils and its management, Acid sulphate soils and their management, calcareous soils-problems and management and waterlogged soils- problems and management
UNIT V: Quality of irrigation water; management of brackish water for irrigation; salt balance under irrigation; characterization of brackish waters, area and extent; relationship in water use and quality.
UNIT VI: Agronomic practices in relation to problematic soils; cropping pattern for utilizing poor quality ground waters.
Characterization of acid, acid sulfate, salt-affected and calcareous soils, Determination of cations (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++) in ground water and soil samples, Determination of anions (Cl-, SO4--, CO3--and HCO3-) in ground waters and soil samples, Lime and gypsum requirements of acid and sodic soils
SOILS 514 FERTILIZER TECHNOLOGY (1+0)
UNIT I: Fertilizers – production, consumption and future projections with regard to nutrient use in the country and respective states; fertilizer control order.
UNIT II: Manufacturing processes for different fertilizers using various raw materials, characteristics and nutrient contents.
UNIT III: Recent developments in secondary and micronutrient fertilizers and their quality control as per fertilizer control order.
UNIT IV: New and emerging issues in fertilizer technology – production and use of slow and controlled release fertilizers, supergranules fertilizers and fertilizers for specific crops/situations, fortified and customized fertilizers
SOILS 515 LAND DEGRADATION AND RESTORATION (1+0)
UNIT I: Type, factors and processes of soil/land degradation and its impact on soil productivity, including soil fauna, biodegradation and environment.
UNIT II: Land restoration and conservation techniques - erosion control, reclamation of salt-affected soils; mine land reclamation, afforestation, organic products.
UNIT III: Extent, diagnosis and mapping of land degradation by conventional and modern RS-GIS tools; monitoring land degradation by fast assessment, modern tools, land use policy, incentives and participatory approach for reversing land degradation; global issues for twenty first century, USLE equation and its importance
SOILS 591 MASTER’S SEMINAR 1+0
SOILS 599 MASTER’S RESEARCH 0+20
SOILS 601 ADVANCES IN SOIL PHYSICS (2+0)
UNIT I: Soil-water interactions, soil water potential, free energy and thermodynamic basis of potential concept, chemical potential of soil water and entropy of the system.
UNIT II: Fundamentals of fluid flow, Poiseuilles law, Laplace’s equation, Darcy’s law in saturated and unsaturated flows; development of differential equations in saturated and unsaturated water flow, capillary conductivity and diffusivity; limitations of Darcy’s law; numerical solution for one dimensional water flow.
UNIT III: Theories of horizontal and vertical infiltration under different boundary conditions.
UNIT IV: Movement of salts in soils, models for miscible-immiscible displacement, diffusion, mass flow and dispersion of solutes and their solutions through differential equations; break-through curves.
UNIT V: Soil air and aeration, mass flow and diffusion processes; thermal properties of soil, heat transfer in soils, differential equation of heat flow, measurement of thermal conductivity of soil.
UNIT VI: Soil crust and clod formation, structural management of puddled rice soils; soil conditioning concept, soil conditioners - types, characteristics, working principles, significance in agriculture.
UNIT VII: Solar and terrestrial radiation measurement, dissipation and distribution in soil-crop systems; prediction of evapotranspiration using aerodynamic and canopy temperature-based models; canopy temperature and leaf diffusion resistance in relation to plant water deficit; evaluation of soil and plant water status using infra-red thermometer, determination of plant water- RLWC & XWP
SOILS 602 ADVANCES IN SOIL FERTILITY (2+0)
UNIT I: Modern concepts of nutrient availability; soil solution and plant growth; nutrient response functions and availability indices.
UNIT II: Nutrient movement in soils; nutrient absorption by plants; mechanistic approach to nutrient supply and uptake by plants; transformation and movement of major micronutrients in soils.
UNIT III: Chemical equilibria (including solid-solution equilbria) involving nutrient ions in soils, particularly in submerged soils.
UNIT IV: Modern concepts of fertilizer evaluation, nutrient use efficiency and nutrient budgeting.
UNIT V: Modern concepts in fertilizer application; soil fertility evaluation techniques; role of soil testing in fertilizer use recommendations; site-specific nutrient management for precision agriculture, STCR approach
UNIT VI: Monitoring physical, chemical and biological changes in soils; permanent manurial trials and long-term fertilizer experiments; soil productivity under long-term intensive cropping; direct, residual and cumulative effect of fertilizer use.
SOILS 603 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF SOILS (2+0)
UNIT I: Colloidal chemistry of inorganic and organic components of soils – their formation, clay organic interaction.
UNIT II: Predictive approaches for cation exchange equilibria - thermodynamics, empirical and diffuse double layer theory (DDL) - relationships among different selectivity coefficients; structure and properties of diffuse double layer.
UNIT III: Thermodynamics of nutrient transformations in soils; cationic and anionic exchange and their models, molecular interaction, chemical potential of cations and anions in soil system, ion uptake by plants- different theories
UNIT IV: Adsorption/desorption isotherms - Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Freundlich adsorption isotherm, normalized exchange isotherm, BET equation; selective and non-selective adsorption of ions on inorganic surfaces and organic surfaces of soil materials (citation of utility in agricultural system).
UNIT V: Common solubility equilibria - carbonates, iron oxide and hydroxides, aluminum silicate, aluminum phosphate; electrochemical properties of clays (citation of examples from agricultural use).
SOILS 604 SOIL GENESIS AND MICROPEDOLOGY (2+0)
UNIT I: Pedogenic evolution of soils; soil composition and characterization.
UNIT II: Weathering and soil formation – factors and pedogenic processes; stability and weathering sequences of minerals.
UNIT III: Assessment of soil profile development by mineralogical and chemical analysis.
UNIT IV: Micro-pedological features of soils – their structure, fabric analysis, role in genesis and classification.
SOILS 605 BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER (2+0)
UNIT I: Organic matter pools in soil and its functions, composition and distribution of organic matter in soil and its functions, environmental significance of humic substances; decomposition of organic residues in soil in relation to organic matter pools.
UNIT II: Biochemistry of the humus formation; different pathways for humus synthesis in soil, soil carbohydrates and lipids, polysaccrhides, lipids, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones etc.
UNIT III: Nutrient transformation – N, P, S, C; trace metal interaction with humic substances, significance of chelation reactions in soils.
UNIT IV: Reactive functional groups of humic substances, adsorption of organic compounds by clay and role of organic substances in pedogenic soil aggregation processes, clay-organic matter complexes.
UNIT V: Humus - pesticide interactions in soil, mechanisms.
SOILS 606 LAND USE PLANNING AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT (2+0)
UNIT I: Concept and techniques of land use planning; factors governing present land use.
UNIT II: Land evaluation methods and soil-site suitability evaluation for different crops; land capability classification and constraints in application.
UNIT III: Agro-ecological regions/sub-regions of India and their characteristics in relation to crop production.
UNIT IV: Water harvesting - concept, significance, types, methodology; use of harvested water in agriculture to increase water productivity.
UNIT V: Watershed development/management - concept, objectives, characterization, planning, execution, community participation and evaluation; rehabilitation of watershed; PRA; developing economically and ecologically sustainable agro-forestry systems for watershed; case studies.
SOILS 608 ADVANCES IN SOIL MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 2+0
Unit I Elements of microbial ecology, microbial ecology and physiology under aerobic and anaerobic environments
Unit II Soil enzymes and their role in organic matter decomposition and soil fertility maintenance, humus formation, synthesis and biodegradation of polysaccharides, biodegradation of aromatic compounds, agricultural chemicals
Unit III Physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, problems associated with nodulation and other nitrogen fixing systems
Unit IV Microbial formulations and microbial biotechnology
SOILS 609 ADVANCES IN SOIL AND WATER MANAGEMENT
UNIT I Soils conservation problems, its magnitude and importance, Methods for soil erosion studies rainfall simulation, run-off plots and Universal Soil Loss Equation
UNIT II Soils and water conservation in hills, watershed as a unit for conservation planning, soil conservation in high altitude cold deserts, social political and economic aspects of soil conservation
UNIT III Physical behavior of soil-water system, field water balance and its components, estimation and significance of evapo-transpiration in crop plants
UNIT IV Root growth in relation to soil physical environment, structure and functions of roots, water uptake pattern by crops
UNIT V Concept of deficit irrigation, scheduling of irrigation significance of pressurized irrigation system in hill, fertigation, estimation of consumptive water use
UNIT VI Water-Nutrient interactions, integrated land and water resource management, rain-water harvesting and its recycling, profile water conservation
UNIT VII Quality of irrigation water, management of poor quality irrigation in agriculture
SOILS 691 DOCTORAL SEMINAR I 1+0
SOILS 692 DOCTORAL SEMINAR II 1+0
SOILS 699 DOCTORAL RESEARCH 0+45