Syllabus
Home Mandate Thrust Areas Faculty Accredited Teachers Couses Offered Alumni Students On-Roll Syllabus Research Projects Extension Activities Awards & Honours Supporting Staff Facilities Former Heads Contact Us

Last Updated: April 20, 2022

Home
Mandate
Thrust Areas
Faculty
Accredited Teachers
Couses Offered
Alumni
Students On-Roll
Syllabus
Research Projects
Extension Activities
Awards & Honours
Supporting Staff
Facilities
Former Heads
Contact Us

 

REVISED SYLLABUS

CourseTitlewithCreditLoad

M.Sc.inMolecularBiologyandBiotechnology

Course Code

Course Title

Credit Hours

Major: 20 credits  (12 credits of core + 8 credits of optional)

MBB 501

Principles of Biotechnology

3+0

MBB 502

Fundamentals of Molecular Biology*

3+0

MBB 503

Molecular Cell Biology*

3+0

MBB 504

Techniques in Molecular Biology I*

0+3

MBB 505

Omics and Systems Biology*

2+1

MBB 506

Plant Genetic Engineering

3+0

MBB 507

Techniques in Molecular Biology II

0+3

MBB 508

Introduction to Bioinformatics

2+1

MBB 509

Plant Tissue culture

2+1

MBB 510

Microbial and Industrial Biotechnology

2+1

MBB 511

Molecular Plant Breeding

2+1

MBB 512

IPR, Bio-safety and Bioethics

2+0

MBB 513

Immunology and Molecular Diagnostics

3+0

MBB 514

Nano Biotechnology

2+1

MBB 515

Environmental Biotechnology

3+0

MBB 516

Bio-entrepreneurship#

1+0

MBB 517

Stress Biology and Genomics#

2+0

MBB 518

Gene Regulation#

2+0

Minor (8 credits) – from one of the related disciplines

 

 

Biochemistry

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Microbiology

Plant Physiology

 Plant Pathology

Entomology

 Bioinformatics

Plant Genetic Resources

Any other related discipline

 

 

Basic Supporting (6 credits) from the following disciplines

 

 

 

Biochemistry

Microbiology

Genetics and Plant Breeding Statistics

Bioinformatics

Computer Applications

 

 

Common courses

 

5

MBB

Seminar

0+1

 

MBB500

Research

0+30

 

 

Total

70

*Core Courses; # New Courses


 

 

Course Contents

M.Sc. in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

 

I. Course Title                        :           Principles of Biotechnology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 501

III. Credit Hours        :           3+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To understand the basics of Molecular biology, plant and microbial Biotechnology

• Importance and applications in agriculture, case studies and success stories

• Public education, perception, IPR and related issues

 

V. Theory

Unit I (12 Lectures)

History, scope and importance of Biotechnology; Specializations in AgriculturalBiotechnology: Genomics, Genetic engineering, Tissue Culture, Bio-fuel, MicrobialBiotechnology, Food Biotechnology etc. Basics of Biotechnology, Primary metabolicpathways, Enzymes and its activities.

Unit II (16 Lectures)

Structure of DNA, RNA and protein, their physical and chemical properties. DNAfunction: Expression, exchange of genetic material, mutation. DNA modifyingenzymes and vectors; Methods of recombinant DNA technology; Nucleic acidhybridization; DNA/RNA libraries; Applications of gene cloning in basic and appliedresearch, Plant transformation: Gene transfer methods and applications of GMcrops.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Molecular analysis of nucleic acids -PCR and its application in agriculture andindustry, Introduction to Molecular markers: RFLP, RAPD, SSR, SNP etc, andtheir applications; DNA sequencing, different methods; Plant cell and tissue culturetechniques and their applications.Introduction to genomics,transcriptomics,ionomics, metabolomics and proteomics. Plant cell and tissue culture techniquesand their applications.

 

Unit IV (12 Lectures)

Introduction to Emerging topics: Genome editing, gene silencing, Plant microbialinteractions,Success stories in Biotechnology, Careers and employment inbiotechnology. Public perception of biotechnology; Bio-safety and bioethics issues;Intellectual property rights in biotechnology.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

 

• Watson JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M and Losick R. 2014. Molecular Biology ofthe Gene,

7th edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York

• Brown T A. 2010. Gene Cloning and DNA analysis an Introduction 6th edition, Wiley Blackwell

• Primrose SB and Twyman R. 2006. Principles of gene Manipulation 7th edition, WileyBlackwell

Restructured and Revised Syllabi of Post-graduate Programmes Vol. 2668

• Singh BD. 2012. Biotechnology: Expanding Horizons 4th edition, Kalyani publisher, New

Delhi, India


 

 

I. Course Title                        :          Fundamentals of Molecular Biology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 502

III. Credit Hours        :          3+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To understand the basics of DNA, RNA, structure, types and chromatin assembly.

• To get insights into the Central Dogma, basic cellular processes, role of mutationand recombination.

• To understand different levels of gene regulation and the pathways involved.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Historical developments of molecular biology, Nucleic acids as genetic material,Chemistry and Nomenclature of nucleic acids; Structure of DNA: primary structure;secondary structure, Forms of DNA: A,B, Z and their function; Structure andTypesof RNA Genome organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; DNA Topology; DNAre-association kinetics, Types of repeat sequences.

 

Unit II (10 Lectures)

Central dogma of Molecular Biology; DNA replication- Classical experiments, Modelsof DNAreplication; DNA replication, Origin and Steps in DNA replication - initiation,elongation and termination; Enzymes and accessory proteins and its mechanisms;Eukaryotic DNA replication in brief. Types of DNA damages and mutations; DNArepair mechanisms, Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous, Geneticconsequences.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Prokaryotic transcription, initiation, elongation and termination, promoters,Structure and function of eukaryotic RNAs and ribosomal proteins. Eukaryotictranscription – RNA polymerase I, II and III, Elongation and Termination,Eukaryotic promoters and enhancers, Transcription factors,Posttranscriptionalprocessing, Splicing: Catalytic RNAs, RNA stability and transport, RNA editing.

 

Unit IV (10 Lectures)

Genetic code and its characteristics,Universal and modified genetic code and itscharacteristics,Wobble hypothesis; Translational machinery; Ribosomes inprokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Initiation complex formation, Cap dependent andCap independent initiation in eukaryotes,Elongation: translocation,transpeptidationand termination of translation; Co- and Post-translational modifications of proteins;

Translational control; Protein stability -Protein turnover and degradation.

 

Unit V (12 Lectures)

Gene regulation in prokaryotes, Constitutive and Inducible expression, smallmolecule regulators; Operon concept: lac and trp operons, attenuation, antitermination, stringent control.Gene regulation in ukaryotes– regulatory RNA andRNA interference mechanisms,Silencers, insulators, enhancers, mechanism of

silencing and activation; Families of DNA binding transcription factors: Helixturn-helix, helix-loop-helix etc. Epigenetic regulations

 

VI. Suggested Reading

 

• Nelson DL and Cox M.M. 2017. Lehinger’s Principles of Biochemistry, 7th edition, W HFreeman

Publication New York.

• Krebs, J.E., Goldstein, E.S., Kilpatrick, S.T. 2017. Lewin’s Genes XII 12th edition, Jones &Bartlett

Learning publisher, Inc.

• Watson, J.D., Baker, T.A., Bell, S.P., Gann, A., Levine, M and Losick R. 2014. MolecularBiology of the

Gene, 7th edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York.

• Alberts, B. 2017. Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th edition, WW Norton & Co, Inc.

• Allison, L.A. 2011. Fundamentals of Molecular Biology.2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Molecular Cell Biology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 503

III. Credit Hours        :           3+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To understand the basics structure and function of plant and animal cell

• To get insights into the basic cellular processes, transport, signalling, cellmovement, cell division and

general regulation mechanisms.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Origin of life, History of cell biology, Evolution of the cell: endo-symbiotic theory,treeof life, General structure and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryoticcell; Similarities and distinction between plant and animal cells; different kinds ofcells inplant and animal tissues.

 

Unit II (8 Lectures)

Cell wall, cell membrane, structure and composition of bio-membranes, Structureand function of major organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus,Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Micro-bodies, Vacuoles,Nucleus, Cyto-skeletal elements.

 

Unit III (12 Lectures)

Membrane transport; Diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, mechanismof protein sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, transmembrane andvesicular transport - endocytosis and exocytosis; General principles of cellcommunication: hormones and their receptors,signaling through G-protein coupledreceptors, enzyme linked receptors; signal transduction mechanisms and regulation,Cell junctions, Cell adhesion, Cell movement; Extracellular matrix.

 

Unit IV (10 Lectures)

Chromatin structure, Cell division and regulation of cell cycle; Mechanisms of celldivision, Molecular eventsat M phase, mitosis and cytokinesis, Ribosomes in relationto cell growth and division, Extracellular and intracellular Control of Cell Division;abnormal cell division: cancer- hall marks of cancer and role of oncogenes andtumor suppressor genes in cancer development - Programmed cell death (Apoptosis).

 

Unit V (10 Lectures)

Morphogenetic movements and the shaping of the body plan, Cell diversification,cellmemory, cell determination, and the concept of positional values; Differentiatedcells and the maintenance of tissues and organ development; Stem cells: types andapplications; Basics of Animal development in model organisms (C. elegans;Drosophila); Plant development.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

 

• Alberts, B. 2017. Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th edition, WW Norton & Co, Inc.

• Lodish, H., Berk, A., Kaiser, C.A., Krieger, M., Bretscher, A., Ploegh, H., Amon, A., Martin,K.C., 2016.

Molecular Cell Biology 8th Edition. W.H. Freeman & Co. New York.

• Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A., Walter, P., 2013

Essential of Cell Biology, WW Norton & Co, Inc.

• Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. 2013. The cell: A Molecular Approach 6th edition, Sinauer

Associates, Inc.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Techniques in Molecular Biology I

II. Course Code          :           MBB 504

III. Credit Hours        :           0+3

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To get a basic overview of molecular biology techniques, good lab practices andrecombinant DNA

technology

• To get a hands on training in chromatography, protein analysis, nucleic acidanalysis, bacterial and

phage genetics

 

V. Practicals

• Good lab practices, preparation of buffers and reagents.

• Principle of centrifugation and spectrophotometry.

• Growth of bacterial culture and preparation of growth curve, Isolation of GenomicDNA from bacteria.

• Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria.

• Growth of lambda phage and isolation of phage DNA.

• Isolation and restriction of plant DNA (e.g. Rice / Moong / Mango / Merigold).

• Quantification of DNA by (a) Agarose Gel electrophoresis and (b) Spectrophotometry

• PCR using isolated DNA.

• PAGEGel electrophoresis.

• Restriction digestion of plasmid and phage DNA, ligation, Recombinant DNAconstruction.

• Transformation of E. coli and selection of transformants

• Chromatographic techniques

a. TLC

b. Gel Filtration Chromatography,

c. Ion exchange Chromatography,

d. Affinity Chromatography

• Dot blot analysis, Southern hybridization,Northern hybridization.

• Western blotting and ELISA.

• Radiation safety and non-radio isotopic procedure.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

 

• Sambrook, J., and Russell, R.W. 2001. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual 3rd Edition,

Cold spring harbor laboratory press, New York.

• Wilson, K., and Walker, J., 2018. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular

Biology 8th edition, Cambridge University Press.

• Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA and Struhl K. 2002.

Short Protocols in Molecular Biology 5th edition, Current Protocols publication.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Omics and Systems Biology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 505

III. Credit Hours        :           2+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To get a basic overview of genomics, proteomics, ionomics and metabolomics

• To get a primary information on the application of omics science across the industry

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Different methods of genome sequencing, principles of various sequencingchemistries, physical and genetic maps, Comparative and evolutionary genomics,Organelle genomics, applications in phylogenetics, case studies of completedgenomes, preliminary genome data analysis, basics of ionomics analysis, differentmethods

Unit II (6 Lectures)

Protein-basics: primary-, secondary- and tertiary structure, Basics of X-raycrystallography and NMR, Principal and Applications of mass spectrometry,Proteomics: Gel based and gel free, Basics of software used in proteomics, MASCOT,PD-Quest, etc., Study of protein interactions, Prokaryotic and yeast-based expressionsystem and purification

 

Unit III (6 Lectures)

Metabolomics and its applications, Use of 1D/2D NMR and MS in metabolomeanalysis, Multivariate analysis and identification of metabolite as biomarkers, Studyof ionome using inductively coupled plasma – mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-RayFluorescence (XRF), Neutron activation analysis (NAA), Data integration usinggenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and ionome with phenome.

 

Unit IV (6 Lectures)

Introductory systems Biology - The biochemical models, genetic models and systemsmodel, Molecules to Pathway, Equilibrium binding and cooperatively – MichaelisMenten Kinetics, Biological oscillators, Genetic oscillators,Quorum Sensing, Cellcell communication, Drosophila Development, Pathways to Network, Gene regulationat a single cell level, transcription network, REGULATORY CIRCUITS, Negativeand positive auto-regulation, Alternative Stable States, Bimodal Switches, Network

building and analysis

 

VI. Practical (12)

• Isolation of HMW DNA and brief overview of sequencing, Primary information ongenome data

analysis.

• BSA Standard curve preparation, Extraction of protein and estimation methods.

• Quantification of proteins from different plant tissues using spectrophotometry.

• 2-D Gel Electrophoresis, 2-D Image analysis.

• Experiments on protein-protein interaction (Yeast 2-hybrid, Split Ubiquitinsystem).

• Demonstration on MALDI-TOF.

• Demonstration on ICP-MS, AAS, Nitrogen estimation using various methods.

 

VII. Suggested Reading

 

• Primrose, S.B. and Twyman, R. 2006. Principles of Gene Manipulation 7th edition, WileyBlackwell

• Wilson, K., and Walker, J. 2018. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and MolecularBiology 8th

Edition, Cambridge University Press.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Plant Genetic Engineering

II. Course Code          :           MBB 506

III. Credit Hours        :           3+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To get a basic overview of molecular cloning, vectors and genomic libraryconstruction.

• To get anoverview of PCR and its applications, sequencing, gene knockouts,transgenics etc.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (10 Lectures)

Historical background, Restriction Enzymes; DNA Modifying enzymes, ligase, T4DNA polymerase, Polynucleotide kinaseetc, Cohesive and blunt end ligation; Labelingof DNA: Nick translation, Random priming, Radioactive and non-radioactive probes,Hybridization techniques: Northern, Southern and Colony hybridization,Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation; DNA-Protein

Interactions: Electromobility shift assay.

Unit II (14 Lectures)

Plasmids; Bacteriophages; M13, Phagemids; Lambda vectors; Insertion andReplacement vectors; Cosmids; Artificial chromosome vectors (YACs; BACs); AnimalVirus derived vectors-SV-40; Expression vectors; pMal,pET-based vectors; Proteinpurification; His-tag; GST-tag; MBP-tag, etc.; Baculovirus vectors system, Plantbased vectors, Ti and Ri plasmids as vectors, Yeast vectors, Shuttle vectors.Transformation; Construction of libraries; Isolation of mRNA and total RNA; cDNAand genomic libraries; cDNA and genomic cloning, Jumping and hopping libraries,Protein-protein interactive cloning and Yeast two hybrid system; Phage display;Principles in maximizing gene expression; Codon optimization for heterologousexpression. Introduction of DNA into mammalian cells; Transfection techniques

 

Unit III (12 Lectures)

Principles of PCR, Primer design,DNApolymerases, Types of PCR – multiplex, nested, reverse transcriptase, real time PCR, touchdown PCR, hot start PCR,colony PCR, cloning of PCR products; T- vectors; Applications of PCR in generecombination, Site specific mutagenesis, in molecular diagnostics; Viral andbacterial detection; Mutation detection: SSCP, DGGE, RFLP, Oligo Ligation Assay.

 

Unit IV (12 Lectures)

Genetic transformation of plants: DNA delivery – Agrobacterium mediated method.Direct DNA delivery – chemical mediated electroporation and particle bombardment.Vectors and transgene design - Promoters and Marker genes. Chloroplasttransformation.Development of marker-free plants. Analysis of transgenic plants– molecular and Biochemical assays, genetic analysis - Identification of geneintegration site - Advance methods – cis genesis, intragenesis and targeted genomemodification – ZFN, TALENS and CRISPR. Application of transgenic technology.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Brown, T.A. 2010. Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis an Introduction. 6th edition, Wiley

Blackwel.

• Primrose, S.B. and Twyman, R. 2006. Principles of Gene Manipulation 7th edition, Wiley

  Blackwell.

• Sambrook, J., and Russell, R.W. 2001. Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual 3rd Edition,

Cold spring harbor laboratory press, New York.

• Wilson, K., and Walker, J. 2018. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular

Biology 8th Edition, Cambridge University Press.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Techniques in Molecular Biology II

II. Course Code          :           MBB 507

III. Credit Hours        :           0+3

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To get a basic overview of molecular biology techniques, good lab practices andmolecular markers.

• To get a hands on training in RNAi, microarrays, yeast2 hybrid and immunologicaltechniques.

 

V. Practicals

Construction of gene libraries (cDNA and Genomics).

• Synthesis and cloning of cDNA.

• Real time PCR and interpretation of data.

• Molecular markers

i. RAPD.

ii. SSR.

iii. AFLP / ISSR and their analysis.

• Case study of SSR markers - construction of linkage map.

• QTL analysis using genotypic data based on SSR.

• SNP identification and analysis.

• Microarray studies and use of relevant software.

• Proteomics

i. 2D gels,

ii. Mass spectrometry

• RNAi - designing of construct, phenotyping of the plant.

• Yeast 1 and 2-hybrid interaction.

• Generation and screening of mutants.

• Transposon mediated mutagenesis.

• Immunology and molecular diagnostics: Ouchterlony double diffusion,Immunoprecipitation, Radiation

Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoretic, RocketImmunoelectrophoretic, Counter Current

Immunoelectrophoretic,ELISA, LatexAgglutination, Immunohistochemistry.

VI. Suggested Reading

• Wilson, K., and Walker, J. 2018. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular

   Biology 8th Edition, Cambridge University Press

• Bonifacino, J. S., Dasso, M., Harford, J. B., Liipincott-Schwartz, J., and Yamada, K. M.

   2004. ShortProtocols in Cell Biology. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey

• Hawes, C., and Satiat-Jeunemaitre, B. 2001. Plant Cell Biology: Practical Approach. Oxford

University Press, Oxford

 • Sawhney, S.K., Singh, R. 2014. Introductory Practical Biochemistry, Alpha science international

limited


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Introduction to Bioinformatics

II. Course Code          :           MBB 508

III. Credit Hours        :           2+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To get a basic overview of computational techniques related to DNA, RNA andprotein analysis.

• To get a hands on training in software’s and programs used to analyse, assembleor annotate genomes, phylogenetics, proteomics etc.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Bioinformatics basics, scope and importance of bioinformatics; Biological databasesfor DNA and Protein sequences -PIR, SWISSPROT, GenBank, DDBJ, secondarydatabase, structural databases –PDB,SCOP and CATH, Specialized genomicresources, Microarray database.

 

Unit II (10 Lectures)

Bioinformatics Tools Facilitate the Genome-Wide Identification of Protein-CodingGenes, Sequence analysis, Sequence submission and retrieval system-SEQUIN,BANKit, SAKURA, Webin, Sequence alignment, pair wise alignment techniques,multiple sequence alignment; Tools for Sequence alignment- BLAST and its variants;Phylogenetic analysis- CLUSTAL X, CLUSTAL W, Phylip, Tcoffee

 

Unit III (10 Lectures)

Sequencing of protein; Protein secondary structure prediction- Chousfasman, GORMethod, Protein 3DStructure Prediction: Evaluation of models- Structure validationand refinement - Ramachandran plot, Force field calculations, SAVES. Proteinfunction prediction- sequence and domain based, Primer designing- principles andmethods.Drug discovery, Structure Based Drug Design- Rationale for computer

aided drug designing, basic principles, docking, QSAR.

 

VI. Practical (12 Lectures)

• Usage of NCBI resources

• Retrieval of sequence/structure from databases and submission

• Different Databases, BLAST exercises.

• Assembly of DNA and RNA Seq data

• Annotation of assembled sequences,Phylogenetics and alignment

• Visualization of structures, Docking of ligand receptors

• Protein structure analysis and modelling

 

VII. Suggested Reading

• Attwood, T.K., and Parry-Smith, D. J. 2004. Introduction to Bioinformatics, Pearson

Education (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd.

• David Edwards (Ed.) 2007. Plant Bioinformatics: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press,

  New Jersey, USA.

• Mount, D.W. 2004. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis. 2nd Revised edition

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, U.S.

• Pevsner J. 2009. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, 2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Plant Tissue Culture

II. Course Code          :           MBB 509

III. Credit Hours        :           2+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To provide insight into principles of plant cell culture and genetic transformation.

• To get a hands on training in basic plant tissue culture techniques, callusing,micropropagation and

analysis.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (12 Lectures)

History of plant tissue culture, principle of Totipotency; Tissue culture media; Planthormones and morphogenesis; Direct and indirect organogenesis; Direct and indirectsomatic embryogenesis; Applications of planttissueculture; National certificationand Quality management of TC plants; Genetic Fidelity testing and Virus indexingmethods – PCR, ELISA

 

Unit II (12 Lectures)

Micropropagation of field and ornamental crops; Virus elimination by meristemculture, meristemtip culture and micrografting; Androgenesis and gynogenesis -production of androgenic and gynogenic haploids - diploidization; Protoplast culture- isolation and purification; Protoplast culture; Protoplast fusion; Somatichybridization - Production of Somatic hybrids and Cybrids;, Wide hybridization -

embryo culture and embryo rescuetechniques; Ovule, ovary culture and endospermculture.

 

Unit III (12 Lectures)

Large-scalecell suspension culture - Production of alkaloids and other secondarymetabolites- techniques to enhance secondary metabolite production, Somaclonaland gametoclonal variations – causes and applications; Callus culture and in vitroscreening for stress tolerance; Artificial seeds, In vitro germplasm storage andcryo-preservation. Commercial Tissue Culture: Case studies and success stories,

Market assessment; project planning and preparation, economics, governmentpolicies

 

VI. Practical (12)

• Preparation of stocks - macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins and hormones,filter sterilization of

hormones and antibiotics. Preparation of Murashige and Skoogmedium.

• Micro-propagation of plants by nodal and shoot tip culture.

• Embryo culture to overcome incompatibility, Anther culture for haploid production.

• Callus induction in tobacco leaf discs, regeneration of shoots, root induction, roleof hormones in

morphogenesis.

• Acclimatization of tissue culture plants and establishment in greenhouse.

• Virus indexing in tissue culture plants. (Using PCR and ELISA).

• Plan of a commercial tissue culture unit.

 

VII. Suggested Reading

• Razdan, M.K. 2003. Introduction to plant tissue culture, 2nd edition, Oxford publicationsgroup

• Butenko, R.G. 2000. Plant Cell Culture University Press of Pacific

• Herman, E.B. 2008. Media and Techniques for Growth, Regeneration and Storage, Agritech

Publications, New York, USA.

• Bhojwani, S.S and Dantu P. 2013. Plant Tissue Culture – An Introductory Text. Springer

Publications.

• Gamborg, O.L and G.C. Philips (eds.). 2013. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ culture-Lab Manual.

  Springer Science & Business media


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Microbial/ Industrial Biotechnology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 510

III. Credit Hours        :           2-+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

To familiarize about the various microbialprocesses/systems/activities, which havebeen used for the development of industrially important products/processes.

 

V. Theory

Unit (8 Lectures)

Introduction, scope and historical developments; Isolation, screening and geneticimprovement (involving classical approaches) of industrially important organisms.

 

Unit II (8 Lectures)

Primary metabolites, production of industrial ethanol as a case study; Secondarymetabolites, bacterial antibiotics and non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics as casestudy; Recombinant DNA technologies for microbial processes; Strategies fordevelopment of industrial microbial strains with scale up production capacities;Metabolic pathway engineering of microbes for production of novel product forindustry.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Microbial enzymes, role in various industrial processes, production of fine chemicalsfor pharmaceutical industries; Bio-transformations, Bio- augmentation withproduction of vitamin C as a case study; Bioreactors, their design and types;Immobilized enzymes-based bioreactors; Microencapsulation technologies forimmobilization of microbial enzymes.

 

Unit IV (8 Lectures)

Environmental Biotechnology, biotreatment for pollution control, treatment ofindustrial and other wastes, biomass production involving single cell protein; Bioremediation of soil; Production of eco-friendly agricultural chemicals, bio- pesticides,bio-herbicides, bio-fertilizers, bio-fuels, etc.

 

VI. Practical

• Isolation of industrially important microorganisms, their maintenance and improvement.

• Lab scale production of industrial compounds such as alcohol, beer, citric acid, lactic acid

and their recovery.

• Study of bio-reactors and their operations.

• Production of bio-fertilizers.

• Experiments on microbial fermentation processofantibiotics, bio-pigments, dairy products,

harvesting purification and recovery of end products.

• Immobilization of cells and enzymes, studies on its kinetic behavior, growth analysis and

biomassestimation.

• Determination of mass transfer coefficient.

 

VII. Suggested Reading

 

• Waites, M.J., Morgan, N.L., Rockey, J.S., Higton, G. 2001. Industrial Microbiology: An

Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell.

• Slater, A., Scott, N.W., & Fowler, M.R. 2003. The Genetic Manipulation of Plants. Plant

  Biotechnology Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

• Kun, L.Y. (Ed.). 2003. Microbial biotechnology: principles and applications. World Scientific

  Publishing Company.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Molecular Plant Breeding

II. Course Code          :           MBB 511

III. Credit Hours        :           2-+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To familiarize the students about the use of molecular biology tools in plantbreeding.

• To provide a hands on training in data analysis, diversity analysis and mapping ofgenes and QTLs.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Inheritance of qualitative and quantitative traits. Heritability – its estimation,Population structure of self- and cross-pollinated species, Factors affecting selectionefficiency. Development of different kinds of segregating populations – F2, F3,BC1F1, BC1F2, BC4F2, RIL (Recombinant Inbred Lines), AIL (Advanced IntercrossedLines), DH (Di-haploid population), NIL (Near Isogenic lines), NAM (Nested

Association Mapping), MAGIC (Multi-parent Advanced Generation Intercrosspopulation).

 

Unit II (8 Lectures)

Causes of sequence variation and its types, Types of molecular markers anddevelopment of sequence based molecular markers – RFLP, AFLP, SCARs, CAPS,SSRs, STMS, SNPsInDel and DARTseq; Inheritance of markers, Linkage analysisusing test cross, F2, F3, BC1F1, RIL. Construction of genetic map, Mapping genesfor qualitative traits; Genotyping by sequencing and high-density chip arrays.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

QTL mapping using structured populations; Association mapping using unstructuredpopulations; Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS),Principle of Associationmapping– GWAS-SNP genotyping methods, DART array sequencing, Illumina’sGolden Gate Technology, Genotyping by sequencing methods- Fluidigm; GBS,Illumina Hi seq- Nano pore sequencing, Principles and methods of Genomic Selection,Fine mapping of genes/QTL; Development of gene based markers; Allele mining by

TILLING and Eco-TILLING.

 

Unit IV (8 Lectures)

Tagging and mapping of genes. Bulk segregant and co-segregation analysis, Markerassisted selection (MAS); Linked, unlinked, recombinant, flanking, peak markers.Foreground and background selection; MAS for gene introgression and pyramiding:MAS for specific traits with examples. Haplotype concept and Haplotype-basedbreeding; Genetic variability and DNA fingerprinting. Molecular markers in Plant

variety protection, IPR issues, hybrid purity testing, clonal fidelity testing andtransgenic testing.

VI. Practical

• Construction of linkage map.

• QTL analysis using the QTL cartographer and other software.

• SNP data analysis using TASEEL.

• Detection of haplotype block using SNP data –pLinksoftware.

• Genotyping by sequencing methods –Illumina genotyping platform.

• Marker assisted breeding – MABB case studies quality traits in rice/maize.

• Genome Assisted Breeding in model crops, Genomic Selection models usingthemorphological and

SNP data

 

VII. Suggested Reading

• Acquaah, G. 2007. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

USA.

• Weising, K., Nybom, H., Wolff, K., and Kahl, G. 2005. DNA Fingerprinting in Plants:

Principles, Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

• Halford, N. 2006. Plant Biotechnology-Current and future applications of genetically modified

crops, John Wiley and Sons, England.

• Singh, B. D. and Singh, A. K. 2015. Marker-Assisted Plant Breeding: Principles and Practices

Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd.

•  Boopathi, NM. 2013. Genetic Mapping and Marker Assisted Selection: Basics, Practice and

Benefits.Springer India. p293.


 

 

I. Course Title : IPR, Bio-safety & Bioethics

II. Course Code : MBB 512

III. Credit Hours : 2+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

• To familiarize the students about ethical and biosafety issues in plant biotechnology.

• To provide a hands-on training in data analysis, diversity analysis and mappingof genes and QTLs.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (10 Lectures)

IPR: historical background in India; trade secret; patent, trademark, design&licensing; procedure for patent application in India; Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT); Examples of patents in biotechnology-Case studies in India and abroad;copyright and PVP; Implications of IPR on the commercialization of biotechnologyproducts, ecological implications; Trade agreements- The WTO and otherinternational agreements, and Cross border movement of germplasms.

 

Unit II (8 Lectures)

Biosafety and bio-hazards; General principles for the laboratory and environmentalbio-safety; Biosafety and risk assessment issues; handling and disposal of biohazards; Approved regulatory laboratory practice and principles,The CartagenaProtocol on biosafety; Biosafety regulations in India; national Biosafety Policy andLaw; Regulations and Guidelines related to Biosafety in other countries

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Potential concerns of transgenic plants – Environmental safety and food and feedsafety. Principles of safety assessment of Transgenic plants – sequential steps inrisk assessment. Concepts of familiarity and substantial equivalence.Risk -Environmental risk assessment – invasiveness, weediness, gene flow, horizontalgene transfer, impact on non-target organisms; food and feed safety assessment –toxicity and allergenicity.Monitoring strategies and methods for detectingtransgenics.

 

Unit IV (6 Lectures)

Field trails – Biosafety research trials – standard operating procedures, labelling of GM food and crop,Bio-ethics- Mankind and religion, social, spiritual &environmental ethics; Ethics in Biotechnology, labeling of GM food and crop;Biopiracy

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Goel, D. and Parashar, S. 2013. IPR, biosafety, and bioethics.

• Joshi, R. 2006. Biosafety and Bioethics.

• Nambisan, P. 2017. An Introduction to Ethical, Safety and Intellectual Property Rights Issues

in Biotechnology.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Immunology and Molecular Diagnostics

II. Course Code          :           MBB 513

III. Credit Hours        :           3+0

 

IV. Theory

Unit I (6 Lectures)

Immunity and its classification; Components of innate and acquired immunity;Lymphatic system; Hematopoiesis; Organs and cells of the immune system- primary,secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs Descriptions of Antigens - immunogens,hapten and adjuvants.

 

Unit II (12 Lectures)

Immunoglobulins-basic structure, classes & subclasses of immunoglobulins, antigenicdeterminants; Multigene organization of immunoglobulin genes; B-cell receptor;Immunoglobulin superfamily; Principles of cell signaling; Basis of self and nonselfdiscrimination; Kinetics of immune response, memory; B cell maturation,activation and differentiation; Generation of antibody diversity; T-cell maturation,activation and differentiation and T-cell receptors; Functional T Cell Subsets; Cellmediated immune responses, ADCC; Cluster of Differentiations (CDs), Cytokinesproperties, receptors and therapeutic uses.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Phagocytosis; Complement and Inflammatory responses; Major HistocompatibilityComplex - MHC genes, MHC and immune responsiveness and disease susceptibility,HLA typing; Antigen processing and presentation- endogenous antigens, exogenousantigens, non-peptide bacterial antigens and super-antigens; Cell-cell co-operation,Hapten-carrier system

 

Unit IV (10 Lectures)

Precipitation, agglutination and complement mediated immune reactions; Advancedimmunological techniques – RIA, ELISA, Western blotting, ELISPOT assay,immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and immunoelectron microscopy; Surfaceplasmon resonance, Biosenor assays for assessing ligand –receptor interaction,CMI techniques- lymphoproliferation assay, Mixed lymphocyte reaction, CellCytotoxicity assays, Apoptosis, Transgenic mice, Gene knock outs

 

Unit V (12 Lectures)

Active and passive immunization; Live, killed, attenuated, sub unit vaccines; Vaccinetechnology- Role and properties of adjuvants, recombinant DNA and protein basedvaccines, plant-based vaccines, Antibody genes and antibody engineering- chimericand hybrid monoclonal antibodies, Immunity to Infection,Bacteria, viral, fungaland parasitic infections, Hypersensitivity – Type I-IV; Autoimmunity; Types ofautoimmune diseases, MHC and TCR in autoimmunity; Transplantation,Immunological basis of graft rejection, immunosuppressive therapy; Tumorimmunology – Tumor antigens.

 

V. Suggested Reading

• Owen J.A., Punt, J., &Stranford, S. A. 2013. Kuby immunology (p. 692). New York: WH

  Freeman.

• Kenneth, M., and Weaver, C. 2017. JanewaysImmunobiology, 9th Edition, New York, USA:

Garland Science, Taylor & Francis publisher.

• William, P. 2013. Fundamental of Immunology, 7th edition, Lippencott, William and Wilkins

publisher.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Nano Biotechnology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 514

III. Credit Hours        :           2+1

IV. Aim of the course

 

Understanding the molecular techniques involved in structure and functions ofnano-biomolecules in cells such as DNA, RNA and proteins.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Introduction to Nanotechnology - Nanomaterials - Self-assembly to artificial assemblyfor creation of useful nanostructures – Bottoms up and Top down approach (Nanorods, nano cages, nanotubes, quantum dots, nanowires, metal/ polymer-basednanostructures) – Preparation and Characterization of nanoparticles (particle sizeanalyzer, microscopy, viz. electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc).

 

Unit (8 Lectures)

Cell structure – Bio macromolecules: Types, Structure, Dynamics and interactionwith water – Cellular nano machines – cellular transducers, membrane channels,membrane transporters, Membrane motors – Creation of bio-nanostructures (Nanoliposomes, Nano micelles, Nanomotors, etc).

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Chemical, physical and biological properties of biomaterials and bio response:biomineralization, biosynthesis, and properties of natural materials (proteins, DNA,and polysaccharides), structure-property relationships in polymeric materials(synthetic polymers and structural proteins); Aerosol properties, application anddynamics; Statistical Mechanics in Biological Systems,

 

Unit (8 Lectures)

Nanoparticular carrier systems; Micro- and Nano-fluidics; Drug and gene deliverysystem; Microfabrication, Biosensors, Chip technologies, Nano- imaging, Metabolicengineering and Gene therapy.

 

VI. Practical

• Isolation of enzymes and nucleic acids involved in biosynthesis of nanomaterials

• Synthesis of Gold/silver Nanoparticles by biogenic methods, Synthesis of micellesand inverse micelles

• Synthesis of Carbon Nano-materials by Chemical Vapor Deposition and Sputteringtechnique

• Preparation ofthiolate silver nanoparticles, Purification and measurement of carbonnano materials

• Zinc selenide quantum dot preparation, Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle

• Thin film preparation by spin coating technique, Synthesis of Nickel metalnanoparticle by urea

decomposition method

• Synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticle

 

VII. Suggested Reading

• Nalwa, H.S. 2005. Handbook of Nanostructured Biomaterials and Their Applications in    

Nanobiotechnology.American Scientific Publications.

• Niemeyer C.M. and Mirkin C.A. (Eds) 2005. Nanobiotechnology: Concepts Applications and

Perspectives, Wiley Inter-science publications.

• Cao, G., and Wang, Y. 2004. Nanostructures and Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and

  Applications, Imperial College Press.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Environmental Biotechnology

II. Course Code          :           MBB 515

III. Credit Hours        : 3        +0

IV. Aim of the course

 

To apprise the students about the role of biotechnology in environment management

for sustainable eco-system and human welfare.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Basic concepts and environmental issues; types of environmental pollution; problemsarising from high-input agriculture; methodology of environmental management;air and water pollution and its control; waste water treatment - physical, chemicaland biological processes; need for water and natural resource management.

 

Unit II (8 Lectures)

Microbiology and use of micro-organisms in waste treatment; biodegradation;degradation of Xenobiotic, surfactants; bioremediation of soil & water contaminatedwith oils, pesticides and toxic chemicals,detergentsetc; aerobic processes (activatedsludge, oxidation ditches, trickling filter, rotating drums, etc); anaerobic processes:digestion, filtration, etc.

 

Unit III (8 Lectures)

Renewable and non-Renewable resources of energy; energy from solid waste;conventional fuels and their environmental impact; biogas; microbial hydrogenproduction; conversion of sugar to alcohol; gasohol; biodegradation of lignin andcellulose; biopesticides; biofertilizers; composting; vermiculture etc.

 

Unit IV (8 Lectures)

Treatment schemes of domestic waste and industrial effluents; food, feed and energyfrom solid waste; bioleaching; enrichment of ores by microorganisms; globalenvironmental problems: ozone depletion, UV-B, greenhouse effects, and acid rain;biodiversity and its conservation; biotechnological approaches for the managementenvironmental problems.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Evans, G. M. and Furlong, J. C. 2010. Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application.

2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell.

• Jordening HJ and Winter J. 2006. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications.

  Wiley-VCH Verlag.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Bio-entrepreneurship

II. Course Code          :           MBB 516

III. Credit Hours        :           1+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

The objective of this course is to teach students about fundamentals ofentrepreneurship, launching a venture or a start up in biotechnology-based theme.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (4 Lectures)

Scope in biotechnology; types of bio-industries – bio-pharma, bio-agri, bio-servicesand bio-industrial; Importance of entrepreneurship; introduction tobioentrepreneurship – biotechnology in a global scale; –skills for successfulentrepreneur–creativity, leadership, managerial, team building, decision making;

opportunities for bio-entrepreneurship- entrepreneurship development programs ofpublic and private agencies (MSME, DBT, BIRAC, Startup& Make in India)

 

Unit II (4 Lectures)

Business plan preparation; business feasibility analysis by SWOT, socio-economiccosts benefit analysis; funds/ support from various agencies; statutory and legalrequirements for starting a company/ venture.

 

Unit III (4 Lectures)

Entry and exit strategy; identifying needs of customers; Market linkages, brandingissues; developing distribution channels - franchising; policies, promotion,advertising; branding and market linkages for ‘virtual startup company’. Pricingstrategy.

 

Unit IV (4 Lectures)

Knowledge centers e.g., in universities, innovation centres, research institutions(public & private) and business incubators; R&D for technology development andupgradation; assessment of technology development; managing technology transfer;

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Adams, D.J. and Sparrow, J.C. 2008. Enterprise for Life Scientists: Developing Innovation and  

Entrepreneurship in the Biosciences.Bloxham: Scion.

• Shimasaki, C.D. 2014. Biotechnology Entrepreneurship: Starting, Managing, and Leading Biotech  

Companies. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier.

• Onetti, A., and Zucchella, A. 2014. Business Modeling for Life Science and Biotech Companies:  

Creating Value and Competitive Advantage with the Milestone Bridge.Routledge.

• Jordan, J. F. 2014. Innovation, Commercialization, and Start-Ups in Life Sciences. London: CRC

Press.

• Desai, V. 2009. The Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development and Management. New Delhi:

Himalaya Pub.House.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Stress Biology and Genomics

II. Course Code          :           MBB 517

III. Credit Hours        :           2+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

To provide advanced knowledge on genomics with reference to abiotic stress tolerance

and biotic stress resistance in plants tolerance.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (10 Lectures)

Different kinds of stresses (biotic and abiotic) and adaptation strategies: Plant cellas a sensor of environmental changes; role of cell membranes in signal perception;Ways of signal transduction in cells and whole plants as a response to externalfactors.Abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity – Drought, salinity, water logging,temperature stresses, light stress and nutrient stress; Drought stress – Effects on

plant growth and development; Components of drought resistance; Physiological,biochemical and molecular basis of tolerance mechanisms; Biotic stress (insect andpathogen) resistance mechanism.

 

Unit II (12 Lectures)

Strategies to manipulate drought tolerance – Osmotic adjustment andOsmoprotectants - synthesis of proline, glycine betaine, poly amines and sugars;ROS and antioxidants; hormonal metabolism - ABA signaling; signaling components– transcription factors. Water logging stress – effects on plant growth andmetabolism; adaptation to water logging,tolerance mechanisms -hormones andflooding tolerance. Strategies for improving submergence tolerance. Salinity stress– effects on physiology and metabolism of plants, SOS pathways and ionhomeostasis,Strategies to improve salinity tolerance in plants. Water logging stress– effects on plant growth and metabolism; tolerance mechanisms. Physiologicaland biochemical changes – High & Low temperature tolerance mechanisms -molecular basis of thermo tolerance. Morphological and physiological changes inplants due to high and low light stresses - photo oxidation -plastid development.

Characters of heliophytes and sciophytes – solar tracking – sieve effect and lightchanneling. Heavy metal stress – Al and Cd stress - effects on plant growth anddevelopment, biotech Strategies to overcome heavy metal stress Nutrient stresseffects on plant growth and development. Genetic manipulation strategies toovercome the stress effects.

 

Unit III (10 Lectures)

Genomics; transcriptomes, small RNAs and epigenomes; functional genomics;transfer of tolerance/resistant genes to model plants and validation of gene function.

Different techniques for the functional validation of genes.

Signaling pathway related to defense gene expression, R proteins, RNAi approachand genes from pathogens and other sources, coat protein genes, detoxificationgenes, transgenic and disease management. Bt proteins, resistance managementstrategies in transgenic crops, ecological impact of field release of transgenic crops.

Bioinformatics approaches to determine gene function and network in model plantsunder stress.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Buchanan, B.B., Gruissem, W. and Jones R. 2015. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of

Plants, 2nd edition, Wiley and Blackwell Publications.

• Sarwat, M., Ahmad, A., Abdin, M.Z. 2013. Stress Signaling in Plants: Genomics and

Proteomics Perspective, Volume 1, Springer.

• HeribertHirt. 2010. Plant Stress Biology: From Genomics to Systems Biology, John Wiley.

• Pandey, G.K. 2015. Elucidation of Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants, Stringer.


 

 

I. Course Title                        :           Gene Regulation

II. Course Code          :           MBB 518

III. Credit Hours        :           2+0

IV. Aim of the course

 

To understand the basics of gene regulation including a wide range of mechanismsthat are used by organisms to increase or decrease the production of specific geneproducts in terms of time, space, conditions or their combinations.

 

V. Theory

Unit I (8 Lectures)

Transcriptional regulation – Regulatory proteins, Activators and Repressors, Bindingof RNA polymerase, Allosteric regulation, DNA looping, Cooperative binding, Antitermination, Combinatorial control – Regulation of lac, trp and ara Operons. Generegulation in Lambda phage – lytic or lysogenic establishment.

 

Unit II (10 Lectures)

Regulatory sequences – Promoters, Enhancers, Silencers, Insulators, Locus ControlRegion. Activator proteins and their binding sites, DNA binding domain –

Homeodomain, Zinc containing proteins, Leucine Zipper Motif, Helix-Loop-Helix,HMG proteins. Recruitment of RNA polymerase to promoter region, Nucleosomesand their modifiers. Signal integration. Signal transduction and transcriptionalregulation. Gene Silencing.Epigenetic gene regulation.

 

Unit III (10 Lectures)

Regulation by RNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, RNA as defense agents.Riboswitches.Gene Silencing by RNA - siRNA&miRNA – synthesis and function.Noncoding RNAs their impact, categories and role in gene regulation, chromatinassembly etc.

 

Unit IV (4 Lectures)

Negative auto-regulation, Positive auto-regulation, Bistable and Bimodal switch,Oscillating pattern of gene expression.

 

VI. Suggested Reading

• Nelson, D. L. and Cox, M. M. 2017. Lehinger’s Principles of Biochemistry, 7th edition, W H

Freeman Publication New York

• Krebs, J. E., Goldstein, E. S., Kilpatrick, S. T. 2017. Lewin’s Genes XII 12th edition, Jones &

Bartlett Learning publisher, Inc

• Watson, J. D., Baker, T. A., Bell, S. P., Gann, A., Levine,M., &Lonick, R. 2014. Molecular

Biology of the Gene, 7th Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York.

• Gardner, E. J., Simmons MJ and Snustad, D.P. 2006. Principles of Genetics (2006) eighth

Edition. Wiley